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Full text of "Wiring diagrams of electrical apparatus and installations"

D. C. Lovelace, 
F. G. S. Go., 

Susanville, 
California. 



WIRING DIAGRAMS 

OF 

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS AND INSTALLATIONS 



yke Qraw-DJ ill Book Qx Tm 

PUBLISHERS OF BOOKS F O R^ 

Coal Age ^ Electric Railway Journal 
Electrical World ^ Engineering News-Record 
American Machinist v Ingenieria Intemacional 
Engineerings Mining Journal v Power 
Chemical 6 Metallurgical Engineering 
Electrical Merchandising 



WIRING DIAGRAMS 



OF 



ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



AND 



INSTALLATIONS 



First Edition 
Sixth Impression 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 

NEW YORK: 370 SEVENTH AVENUE 

LONDON: 6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 4 

1913 



Copyright, 1913, by the 
McGraw-Hill Book Company 



THE • MAPLE • PB£SS. TOBK- PA 



PREFACE 

This volume contains a collection of circuit diagrams, representing more or 
less completely all branches of electrical engineering, with the exception of tele- 
phony and telegraphy. 

The diagrams have been taken from actual practice. Although some are not 
new, it has been thought best to include them, either because they illustrate impor- 
tant principles, or because the apparatus shown is still in extensive use. A book of 
diagrams limited strictly to the latest apparatus would be of little use to the oper- 
ator or to the repair man. 

The diagrams show much more than simple wiring connections. By their use 
it is possible to lay out a modern switchboard, to connect the apparatus and 
to understand the principles of operation of the various electrical machines. 
The reader will obtain information from them in proportion to his training and 
experience. 

Armature winding is omitted, as its proper treatment would require more space 
than is here available. 

The circuit connections are so drawn as to be self-explanatory, thus reducing 
the necessary text to a minimum. 



CONTENTS 

Section Page 

I. D. C. Generators 1 

11. A. C. Generators 17 

III. Feeders 31 

IV. Transformers • 39 

V. Potential Regulators 47 

VI. Synchronous Converters 61 

VII. Batteries and Boosters 73 

VIII. Sub-stations 79 

IX. D. C. Motors and Speed Control 89 

X. A. C. Motors and Speed Control 101 

XI. Constant Potential Distribution 117 

XII. Constant Current Distribution 125 

XIII. Lamp Mechanism Connections 137 

XIV. Rheostats and Controllers 143 

XV. Lightning Arresters 173 

XVI. Measuring Instruments 183 

XVII. Remote Controlled and Automatic Switches and Circuit 

Breakers 201 

XVIII. Railway Controllers and Equipment 213 

XIX. Railway Signals 237 

XX. Miscellaneous Interior Wiring 243 



V13 



SECTION I 
D. C. GENERATORS 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF 

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS AND 

INSTALLATIONS 




FiG. 1. — Series generator, voltage increases 
with the load. 



_r_n 



Fig. 2. — Shunt generator, constant voltage 
dropping off slightly with increase of load. 




Fig. 3. — Compound generator (short 
shunt) . Constant voltage at the termi- 
nals of the generator or at some point 
in the transmission line. 




Fig. 4. — Compound generator 
(long shunt). 




Fig. 5.— Two-pole, compound-wound generator with equalizer for connecting in parallel with 

similar generators. 
3 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 6. — Four-pole, shunt-wound generator. 




Fig. 7. — Four-polc compound wound generator. 




Fig. 8. — Three-wire generator (Dobrowolsky-Westinghouse system). 



DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS 



5 




Yio. 9. — Schematic diagram of connections for three-wire generator shown in Fig. 8. 
The e.m.f. between Hnes, that is, between E and A, at any instant is the sum of the e.m.f. 
generated in the armature between A and D and one-half of the e.m.f. impressed across the 
balancing coils, CD. 




- Ek. Buses 



Pot Buses 



Fig. 10. — Connections of a three-wire generator. 




Fig. 11. — Connections of a three-wire system using balancers. 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS 



SL 



SL 



t?wl U'VrtH l^'^Aft^- ") 




& 




WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



r/f TAmm~eter 

Poteni/a/. 
GenerofidriSw/Cch 



rqua'//'z/y7g, J5(y<s 




— »-*•■ 



Vo/tmeter\ \ b^^ 



IZZJ 



A X&round Deteo tor 
( L amps 

^Potent/o/P/ug 



„©, PAeoaia^ 



Generator 



£6 

Fig. 1-1. — Small plant direct-current generator panel. Rating: 5 to 60 kw., 125 volts, or 10 

to 120 kw., 250 volts. 



T 



as 



H 



28 



i. 



P0P 






o^ 



/6 



C/'co't Breake/ 



ff/7eosC<3C 
Carcf ^o/cfer 

PoCent/a/ 
PecspCac/e 



^=A 






1 \ 1 



Buses 



Groonc^OeCecCor 

(T T^i - /i/nmeCer 
\\yo/tmeCer 

rr 



C/'rca/t Breaker 



PoCenC/'a/ Buses 



fqac7//zer Bas 



P/uS 



Receptac/e 
Pases 



Generator 




P/?eostaC 



y Syv/'CcA 



Fig. 15. — Low voltage direct-current generator panel with circuit breaker. Rating: 5 to 120 
kw., 125 volts, or 10 to 240 kw., 250 volts. Voltmeter to be mounted on swing bracket. 



DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS 

-GrourxJOetecCor Lainps- 




FlG 



. 16.-Small plant direct-current switchboard for generator and feeders. 




C/'rcLf/'t Breaker 

Ma/nBusBat 

/ImnoeC er 



Potentia/Bujl^/reSupport^ 

/?AeojCct Handiv/yee/ 

F/'e/a Stv/Cch (on. 
Generator Pane/ on/e/J 
PotenC/a/ Recepcac/e 
Care/ /io/c/er 
Rheostat C/ia/'n "| 

Operating Mechan/sm) 
'^ -L/ght/n^ ^yv/'tc/? 

Quick br&ah Svfitoh 
'att-hour meter 



Pesistance ■ 




Fig.' 17— Railway generator panel. Rating up to 1200 kw. 



10 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Connect /on to 
Gas Bars inc/udecf 



Circuit BrcoAur 



Ammeter 

Potential Receptoc/e 
-\- Pheostat Hancfivhee/ 

Fie/d Switch 



FfhQositat Cno//^ 
Ope rat mg Mechanism 
- - Toggle Qrusn 5witcn 



Y/iadi-hoormett 



f?BS/stance 





Fig. 18. — Railwaj' generator panel. Rating 1600 k\v. and up. 



DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS 



11 



Bach V/ew 



Positi'/e Bus 



ruse 



[ Circuit BreaMer 

' J Battery, 0e I / ana connect/ons 

|Wl^ .^^ Ammeter 



] To A/arm Bel J 

1 Potent iar 
\ Bu5e-5 



^Receptac/e 




station Lights 



Rheostat 



Yield dwi'tch 
-Discharge Res/stance 



Eguai/zerBus 

_ ' Negative Bu5 

6 round — 

Fia. 19. — Connections for generator panel shown in Figs. 17 and 18. 



12 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



^ 




□ 



Circuit Breaker 



i^ain Bus Bars ■ 



T.f\T./lnrimeCer 
Potentia/ Bus yVircSuppor C 



ffheostot Handivheef 



Potentio/ PscspCac/<^ 
Cc3rc/ tfo/c/er 



Por/Tt O t e^er Stv/tch 



lyaCtmeCfr PcsisConce — 



m 



3H 




Bquo/izer Bus 



Y\G, 20. — Direct-current two-wire generator panel. Rating: 100 to 400 amp., 125 and 250 

volts. 





itt n 




Circuit Breoftcr 

Ma/n Bus Bars 

ZP^T. /Ammeter 

Pbtencio/ Bus Wirs ■Support 
Phsostot /ionc/tvhee/ 

Potential Peceptac/e 
Cora /ioider 

-Porm DLefsr Srvitch 



iVatt/neeer 



J^ibtODeter Pesi'stoncs ■ 



SEl 



0E1 



1^ 




1* /e- — ► 



Fig. 21. — Direct-current, two-wire generator panel. Rating: 400 to 1200 amp., 125 and 250 

volts. 



DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS 



13 




I- 



i_ 





C/'rcu/C Breaker 

Ma/n Bus Bars 

TF.T. Ammeter 

PoCentia/Bus ty/re Support — ^ 

/Rheostat Hancftvfiee/ 

F/'e/c/ StviC'ch 

Potencio/ Receptac/e 
Corcf fio/c/er 
Rheostoc Cha/'n \ 

Operat/nj} Mecha/i/'jm] 



-»- \Form D2 Letter •5wtcc/ie3 



/Wattmeter 



tVaCCmeter Resistance 





V — /6~ — 4 

Fig. 22. — Direct-current two-wire generator panel. Rating: 600 to 1600 amp., 125, 250 and 

600 volts. 



f 



f- 





a*" 




Type C fbr/T7 A* 
C/r-cu/C Br-GcfAcr- 



Ma/'n Sus Scfrs 
PoCenCia/ Bu^s fV/'z-e Support 

Pott^ntta/ Pectrptac/c 

Ccrr <y Mo/cfer 

f^hGo:itat Ch-'tn 1 



f^aCCmctt^r* 



^otCmct<Tr'/r'c^7stonc<: 





Fig. 23. — Direct-current generator panel. Rating: 400 to 2200 amp., 125 and 250 volts. 



14 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Type C /"orm ff 

C/rcuiC BrcoM^f 
Connec^'Ons Co Bt^ 



T/.tl ^miDcCcr 

Potent la/ ./^ecepc oc/c 

ffheostat C^a'rt 1 

OpcroC/ri^ A/ccAcm/jm^ 

ToJiJI/s SrXijh 3ni'tcfi 



— " tVof Crnctcr- 



*yoCCmeCer P^si^toncs 





J2~ 4 

Fig. 24. — Direct-current two-wire generator panel, 2300 to 4000 amp., 250 volta. 



DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS 



15 



VoHmefer 



Posi't /Pff Su-f 




VAmmefer 



Pofenfia/ Buses 
''Receptacle 



/nstru/ncnt 3usc^ 



lb Lower Studs 
cf Main 



Switches 



O/ichcfr^e /?es/'stc*nce 



£'q<^o//xif/' Suj 




Fig. 25. — Connections for generator panel 
shown in Figs. 20 to 24. 



Fig. 



ig'htn/n^ Arresfer 



Dischargre Resisfance 



.'Series 
Winding 



Bus C6rourrc^ed} 
I -Equaiizer 
26. — Connections for single-pole 



direct-current generator panel equalized 
on the negative side. 



16 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Grouncfecf 



'Circuit BreoMer 

• 



€)OVoitLomps 



CIlVl 



-0-^ 



fuse ^ I 



voltmeter 

•Sf)unt 



=1=1 •■ 



^sistonce- 



__'X"_nrl ^o A/arm Bell 



— \ Potent iot 
— iBuseb 



i-fgnt/rtg 3witch<^ 
7o Center 3tucf n 
df Luting 3w,tj^rr* I 

onoajocentPane/ jj 
'use ^1^1 



RecQptociz 



5.P5T 
3tv/tcf> 



f^o&iiive Bus m 
equalizer QuS' 



Pi&ic/ 3tvitci-> 



o^UlflP 

Disctiorge 
Pesistorice 



rli 



m 



li. 



PneoiLoC 



1 



OTl 



'Lightning Qenerator 
'Arrester 



Fig. 27. — Connections for direct-current generator panel, single-pole. 



SECTION II 
A. C. GENERATORS 



ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS 



19 



/nsrrumenTs 
fii Fuse Holder 
B /\mmeter 
C yoitmerer 
D vo/rmererResisrance 
£ Vo/rmeTer Receptacle 
F Ground DetecTor Recepracie 
6 ^.t. Rheostat 
H D.P5.TQ:C3Wltcn 
J Card Receiver 
K Name Plate 
L Porenriai Transformer 
Af 5maii Fuse BiacKs 




Fig. 28. — Single-phase generator panel. Rating: 7.5 to 150 kw., 1150 volts, or 15 to 300 kw. 

2300 volts. 



Imtruments 
fi Fu3e holder 
B AmmeTer 
C voltmeter 
D Voltmeter Re^sistance 
£ voltmeter Receptacle 
F Ground Detec tor Receptacle 
G PtF.Rheostat 
h DPSTQCSwitcn 
J Card Receiver 
K tiamePiate 
L Potential Transformer 
t^ ^mallFuse diocHs 




Fig. 29. — Single-phase generator and feeder panel. Rating: 15 to 300 kw., 1150 volts, or 

30 to 600 kw., 2300 volts. 



20 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS 



21 




Instruments 

A ru^e Holder 

6 /^mmeter 

c vo/tmersr 

D AEf?r)eo5ror 

£ Qrouna Detector ReceptQCiQ 

r Voltmeter Receptacle 

G DP dTQC 'Switch 

11 ^.PdTQ-C Switch 

«/ Cora Receiver 

H name Plate 

L Voltmeter Resistance 

to Small Fuse Blocf^'S 

li Potential Transformer 




nLTCRn/iroR cxcireft,, 

Fig. 31. — Single-phase generator panel with one incandescent lamp and one arc lamp circuit. 
Rating: 7.5 to 150 kw., 1150 volts, or 15 to 300 kw., 2300 volts. 




'TyMT^w^-'*" 



Fig, 32. — Connections of a three-phase composite-wound alternator, Westinghouse system 



22 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 33. — Connections of a two-phase composite-wound alternator, Westinghouse Bystem. 




Bysit/'on of f7e/a /Jheoacat 
n/)en .s/na// 
mount on pane/ 
ynmeCerj 



F/e/cf AmmeCer 
Wo/tmeCen 
Potencia/ 
/Receptacle 

£xa'ter Rheostat-*^ 

Synchronizing 

Receptac/e 




3eri 
Transformer 



Fig. 34. — Three-phase 240-volt generator panel. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS 



23 




Position ofFieid/fheoscat 
tv/ten sn7a// enougf) Co 
mount onponel\ 
flmmetens 



IVattmetcr 
WoJtmeter 
Potential 
PecepCacie 




Oii 

SiV/CC/} 



Transformers, 



Fia. 35.— Three-phase 4S0 and 600-volt generator panel. 




/Ammeter 



^-r/e/cf /Jmmeter 
Vo/tmeter 



/Rheostat 
operating 
tvfechon/srn 

/7 efd 5wit ch 



Vo/tmeter^ n-T:f'^^'J^ 
, /r >, 0//Sy\/itch\ 

v_K /?m meter 



\lRe5i3tonce 



Synch ron/z/ng 
Rece/otac/e 




\A/fa/n 
\ Buses 



b 



5ynchro/n!zinQffecefitac/e 



(^PoCentiof 



TP Oi/ Switch 



rxc/'ter) 
'Rheostat] 



Exciter 



u ^^ 1^ 




''D/5Cha/je\ 
Resistance] 



n 



r/eicf, 
t 5m tc/^ 
\Generotor 
\f?heo5tot 

flmmeter 



/J/temot/np 
Current 
Generator . 



Stort/ng 



Synchroniz/ng 

PIUQS 

i 
^Running 



Synchronizing Buses 



Ground Bus 



Connections forf^ng/ne 
Governor Contro/ 
/viotorancLSwitch 



Fig. 



36. — Three-phase generator panel with one ammeter. Rating: 8 to 160 amp., 1150 

and 2300 volts. 



24 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS 



25 










5, ^ 









L^ 




Pi 
I 

o 



P^ 



26 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




S^iL^-lSir I ibis j: 




•^i- ri-'^i-- 



'?fl^~~lr'^'^' 






0) 



■ n, 

- 3 M OJ -' o) 

Oj r --^ OJ G O 



COS 



•S a3 s^ 



O U 



•X!. 






-^ -3 — - 'rj q:> F^ 0) 
O .^ fl C ci.rf •- 

« 2 =! 3 3-3^ 

HM S O O O C " 
.i:; fc^ s« fc, oj 53 
;2 bC bC bC-^ >J 










03 (h 

O 

.2 hJD 

-*J (- 

« 05 
43—. 

^ -, 

3 03 
O 



«^ 3 



ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS 



27 




yVattmeter 

&2i^er/7ar on ^r£>^r7e 
y^/7^ meter 



Fig. 41.- 



ConnecC/o/13 for 
t/J€ £^nff/ne Got^ernor ConCro/ Motor 



-Connections for an a.c. generator panel in a large station, showing two methods 

of connection. 



28 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Case 4 
^TG Pone/ w/'th Ty^ef/hrm f/j Swi tch 



fieststance 
Stv/t-c/?^ N - 

Normo//y /n 
tower C//ps 



■'9mmete/ 
fb/Cnoeter - 



iS 



>^ 



SresnLamp 
(Ojoen)— 



^ 






fiec^oc/e 



(C)osecll- 



rS- 



.^ 



/S5Vo/tOCeuse3 
onO// Stvitch 



|i 7Grmirto/3/ocM 
on 0//Sivitcf> 



Case 8 othertv/'se os Coae/t' 
^TG /^ne/ with Ty/x/^^rm /rSwitcM 



To/hs/tyt^e 
fxciterSuj 
'\TnpCoi/ 
ToFmer^erJCy 
Goivrnor onTlirbina 



Watt-hour meter 

Sync^roniz/ngP/ugs 



Sync/ironuinp Bust! 



Tofmerffency 
Co^errtor on Tlirbine 



■ Ground Bus 

"WA/V 1 yWvX-^l^it? Mam 



TbAhs/ArVe 
CxciterSus 



L&i 



h 



To Posftfh^e 
Sxc/terSua 




[i 



ConnecCfons for the Cn^/rJe 
Governor Con tro/ Motor 
anc/ Switch iv/7en Supp/ieif 

/?/tematrr>ff Current Generator 

m^mm-Bus 



Fig. 42. — Connections for an a.c. generator panel with step-up transformers, showing two 

methods of connection. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS 



29 



m ffr ' " -^ 



Eertriing field Control ii~7^ 




Fields, RheuBtM 
Circuit Brealcei 



Main Sirltcbet 

250 Volt Auilllu; BuMl 
- + 

-t 

2£0 Volt Field Buue 



Geoerator Field ' 



rH'J 



3 PhaBC Lightiog 
Ccserator 



y V. 

3 Phate Power Genentor 



Fig. 43. — Connections of an exciting system for a large station; one motor-driven and two 
steam-driven exciters and a storage battery with booster. 



30 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Coirer/tor Co/>(ro/ Motor 



Fig. 43A. — Diagram of connections for generator panels. A, ammeter (A.C.); A.S., three- 
way ammeter switch; C.T., current transformer; F, fuse; F.A., field ammeter (D.C.); F.S., field 
switch; G.CS., governor control switch; L.S., limit switch (included with governor motor); 
O.S., oil switch; P.I.W., polyphase indicating watt meter; P.W.M., polyphase watt meter; P.R., 
potential receptacle; P.P., potential plug; Rheo., rheostat; S, shunt (only for 80 amp. and over) ; 
S.R., synchronizing receptacle; S.P., synchronizing plugs; T.B., terminal board for instru- 
ment leads; V, voltmeter (A.C.). 



SECTION III 
FEEDERS 



FEEDERS 



33 




34 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




FEEDERS 



35 




/Jrr»rr>etGr^ 




O P O// 5i/i/'ic^e3 



34'5 T 5^ _^ 
32'0 r 5w 



ent 5/na/s T^^ronv Stvjtc/^ea 



Fig 46 — Single-phase feeder panel with automatic oil switches (double panel). Rating: 8 to 

100 amp., 1150 and 2300 volts. 



II WroSiysScrs 






ffes/'stonce 



/ 



Com/jensat/ng 
Vo/tmeter 



D 
11 



' a/QO.r 

/JutO/DOt/C 

0//5w/tch 



\ \\\/fmmeter 



ruses 



-Groi/ncfBus 



Tofeecfer 

\ffeguia(.or 



Ligf^tniiQ /Arresters- 



Fig. 47. — Single-phase feeder panel with automatic oil switches, compensating.voltmeter and 
feeder regulator. Rating: 8 to 100 amp., 1150 and 2300 volts. 



36 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




TripCoif 



;tari 



/ 



Connection for 
fb/y/3//ase 
Watt -hour meter 



♦J 



^yphase '^H 



ytattmeie?^\\Jjt: 



Fig. 48. — Two-circuit three-phase feeder panel with oil switches, 480 and 600 volts. 







(E^crjc 



XT 



Ser/es TransFormer 
tVattmcCers ^ 



Circuft Breaker 




Fig. 49. — Two-circuit three-phase feeder panel with circuit breakers, 480 and 600 volts. 



FEEDERS 



37 



H 



@ © 



U— . 



-eorriers 
E^v.pu/sion ruses 



/Ammeters 

\Corr^joensating 
1 Vo/tmeters 

IReQu/otor- 
O/oerot/i^g 
Mecf''onisni 



P/uQ Sifl^itches 



-J 



Case/}' 

ToSusBors 



D/uQSwitchesi 

CurrenA 
Transfor/TTer |\ 

fies/5tance 



Corr)fier>30t/nc; 
)/o/tmeter- 



D 

Q 



Potent'O/ 
Trons former 
Tuses 



fuses 



\)/fmmeCer 



■Groi/ncfBus 



Tofeecfer 



u 



k 



Lightn/ng/frresters. 



Pegu/ator 



Fig. 50. — Single-phase feeder panel with plug switches, expulsion fuses, compensating volt- 
meter and feeder regulator (double panel). Rating: 8 to 100 amp., 1150 and 2300 volts. 









Q> Q 




\,2A'ST5w _ 



/Jmmeters 




TPO,/Si/i/itche3 



) CD ^'^'T^^t^'^ 



ToFeecfer 



L/'ohCninoArresters 



Fig. 51. 



-Three-phase feeder panel with automatic switches (double panel). Rating: 8 to 
100 amp., 1150 and 2300 volts. 



38 



WIRING: DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 





SECTION IV 
TRANSFORMERS 



TRANSFORMERS 



41 






Fig. 54. — Smgle-pha.se 
transformers on single- 
phase system. 






cm cw] 






Fio. 55. — Single-phase 
transformers, secondaries 
in parallel. 



Fig. 56. — Single-phase 
transformers, secondaries 
in series. 



— 5W— K— 500 — 



cm m\ 

-50^ '50- 



-50- 



FiG. 57. — Single-phase 
transformer, primaries in 
series, secondaries in par- 
allel. 



"100 
■50-K 



Fig. 58. — Single-phase 
transformer connects with 
balancing coil to three- 
wire system. 



(W\ (W\ fWl 

100^ '/OO^ ^100 



-zoo- 



Fig. 59. — Three single- 
pha.se transformers, prima- 
ries in series, secondaries in 
parallel. 








000 * 






- 








" 577 • 


Sl 


- 57? 

00000 


iU 


G 


-S77 — 

00000 


^ 






000' 

-577— 




000 

-577— 




'-57.7^ 












... 






« lOO 








Fig. 60. — Three single-phase transform- 
ers connected delta-delta to a three-phase 
system. 



Fig. 61. — Three single-phase transform- 
ers connected star-star to a three-phase 
system. 



42 



WIHINa DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




0001 

— 5^7- 


S 


fOOO' 




-577" 












■^57.7^ 


-577-^ 











Secondary 



Fig. 62. — Three single-phase transform- Fig. 63. — Three single-phase transform- 

ers connected delta-star to a three-phase ers connected star-delta to a three-phase 

system. system. 






-100 » < loo 




-nnnnrr^ i-nnnprtr^-, 



h /Ii7<7 

L ' 



100- 




FiG. 64. — Two single-phase transform- 
ers connected open delta to a three-phase 
system. 



Fig. 65. — Two single-phase transformers 
connected tee to a three-phase system. 



UuLLn 



n. 



.^\iifijLT_ 



nrem 



\—/00- 

aee — 



j\SiM} 



Tnnr 




Fig. 66.— Three single-phase transformers with two-coil secondaries connected double-delta 

to a three- to six-phase system. 



TRANSFORMERS 



43 



/ooo > ■* /ooc 



Usu 1 



KSiSLr 



nnn 



KJiSir 



n 



i [-SO/J- 

■SOK3- 




FiG. 67. — Three Bingle-phase transformers with two-coil secondaries connected double-star 

to a three- to six-phase system. 



^mmsiSj\mimsi^u\mmmJ 



am 

—100-^ 

— so- 
so — 


7 


roooo' 

—too-' 




0000 

■—I00-* 


■' 


-soirj- 

i t 


:' < 




Fig. 68. — Three single-phase transformers connected diametrically to a three- to six-phase 

system. 




cm\. 



vm\ 



zoo-**- 86 6- 






HI 



/ 



>; 



\ 



"x-" 



6' 



/ 



\/ 



6' 6 

Fig. 69. — Two single-phase transformers with two-coil secondaries connected tee to a three- 

to six-phase system. 



44 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



mmmJ 



[smmoJ 



y 



r 



--iO-+-5»— —70^'50^S0^ 



a 



so hv so y^ 



r 



Fig. 70. — Two single-phase transformers 
connected star to a four-wire two-phase 
system. 




Fig. 71. — Two single-phase transformers 
connected to a three-wire two-phase system. 






\Sim&m 



soo o soo 



kJ. '^ 



(TRnjinnri 






Fig. 72. — Two single-phase transformers connected tee to a three-phase two-phase system 

(Scott system). 



* s €, 



K^miSim 



/ 


a 


— ^ 




p 


r>— ! 


-or 

3 


a 






























* 


^ Af 












s * 














T/rrvs-/ 


Two -phase 
















Fig. 73. — Three single-phase transformers connected delta to three-three two-phase 
system (Taylor system). Both- two and three-phase can be taken off the secondary leads. 
Motors used on the two-phase sj^stem cannot have inter-connected windings. 



TRANSFORMERS 



45 



^TJUWOM^T^ 



n.Q-Q.Q.Q.Q.r| 

U — /ao — *| 



Fig. 74.- 



-Single-phase transformer used as 
a booster. 



^1 



'wmmy^ 



^ 



QSlOSlSLr- 



I- 



Fig. 75. — Single-phase transformer con- 
nected to lower the e.m.f. 



200 Volt Circuit 



Balance Coil 



-100 V- 



-100 V- 



100 Volt Circuft 



Fig. 76. — Auto-transformer used as a 
balance coil for deriving of three-wire sys- 
tem from a two-wire system. Three-wire 
voltage one-half the main voltage. 



Balance Coil 



ro"ooooooo*oooooooo^ 



-»00 V- 



-100 V- 



-200 V- 



FiG. 77. — Auto-transformer used as a 
balance coil for deriving of three-wire sys- 
tem from a two-wire system. Three-wire 
voltage same as main voltage. 



400 Volt Circuit 



Balance Coil 



*-I00 V- 



-100 V- 



-200 V- 



-100 V- 



-100 V- 



-200 V- 



-200 V- 



•==• Ground 

Fig. 78. — Auto-transformer used as a balance coil for deriving of five- wire sj'stem from a. 

two-wire system. 



46 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Ai- 



Bi- 



A2- 



B2- 



> 



> 



ummmmmm 



Kloo v^i-ioo V* 

-200 V- 



imm^mwMwm 



Ground 



-100 V^ 



-100 V» 



-200 V- 



FiG. 79. — Two five-tap auto-transformers connected to two-phase primary circuit to obtain 
100 and 200 volt, two-phase secondary circuits. 



SECTION V 
POTENTIAL REGULATORS 



POTENTIAL REG ULA TORS 



49 



PRIUtRY 
REGULATtNG TRANSFORMER SECONDARY 




Fig. 80. — Step-by-step potential regulat- 
ing transformer. By throwing the switch 
at the bottom, the transformer can be made 
to boost or lower the line voltage. See Figs. 
74 and 75. 




Fig. 81. — Step-by-step potential regu- 
lating transformer for large currents. The 
exciter voltage is added or subtracted 
through a series transformer. 



Se con atcj y~^ 
WAA/V\AAAA/SA 



O 



-/"■o/^G t^o'^s^r* , 



-^ 



0cxcM ^•©*#' of ^e^ij^a^o* 



Bus Sars or- /t/iernareor: 



Fig. 82. — External connections of a variable-ratio potential regulating transformer operated 

by a dial switch. 



50 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 









To /SsecTfe/- 




/^e\/'srss/- 



jFyv>ry£. i^/,e%/f 



Fig. 83. — Internal connections of the regulating transformer shown in Fig. 84. The 
transition from maximum boost to maximum lower, takes place in a definite number of steps. 
There being no air gap, the power-factor is practically unity. The contact arm is equipped 
with a quick-break contact to prevent sparking and fluctuation in the feeder voltage during the 
transition from one contact to the next. 



Current 
'7ror>s/br/ne' 




Conioci moA/ng 
[/d/tmeier 



6/Jmpere A/oo-//x/i/ci/'ye 
^Pes/'sio/Tce 



^ 



7b feeder 



fhieni/a/ 
mw*m\ Tronsformer 



//ffVoMn.c 



.U^'iSm'ich 




JOO/iPM 



f 



To Generator 



Fig. 84. — External connections of a variable-ratio potential regulating transformer for 
operation by an automatically controlled dial switch. For connections of the contact-making 
voltmeter, see Fig. 88. 



POTENTIAL REGULATORS 



51 



7b 



^^^-'^W^NW^^^^lH^ut'MnfH^MMnu^ 7bfeec/er 




OJo/Sn'fic/) 




I?eve/oped 



Fig. 85. — Internal connections of the regulating transformer shown m Fig. 84. Resistances 
inserted between the contacts to prevent sparking. 




Fig. 86. — Connection of the windings of a single-phase induction potential regulator. 
Rotor in position to generate the maximum secondary e.m.f. The principle of the induction 
regulator is the same as that of the transformer type, except that the transition from maximum 
boost to maximum lower is smooth and continuous, being obtained by mechanical displace- 
ment of the primary and secondary coils of the transformer. The power-factor of this type 
is about 0.85. 



52 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 






Tf7ree/oho.se Lo>v Tens/on 
. For yo/tog'e3 ■see 
iffotor /V<7/77<? P/a6c 




Oeia// of /./m/t ySty/tch 



Fig. 87. — External connections of a single-phase induction potential regulator operated by 
a hand-controlled three-phase induction motor. 



fxte-rna/ /fes/stance 

3ee tat)/e of Connections 



To contro///n^ 
t^ecfer /f^pu/ator 



To CurrentTransformer 




Potent/a/ 
Winding 

Connpe nsa ting ■ 
Windinp 



To Potentia/ Ti^ans/^rn^er ' 
or Pfessure Wires 



Fig. 88. — Connections of a contact-making voltmeter used to operate the relay switch of an 
automatically controlled potential regulator. 



POTENTIAL REGULATORS 



53 



Cor>tact-rf70/f/r>p 




9-* ?•* 



<>-.n=] r- 



^\\\ 



J I 



!^ 






'9Gs/star?ce 



WAWWW 






AWWWV 



7ro/7s/br/7?e>' 



crt 



/fe/ay^)V/'£c// 







To Ger?e.^a'/b?' 



Fig. 89. — Connections of a single-phase induction potential regulator operated by an 
automatically controlled threfe-phase induction motor. Connections for the limit switch shown 
in Fig. 87. Those for the contact-making voltmeter, in Fig. 88. 



54 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




POTENTIAL REGULATORS 

Line 



55 



Primary W. 
^■^xsstsis—^-tsiscstxs'ss^-^'^estsissy-^ Trans-former 
Sec.W. 



Trans. Sec. 




Polyphase 
Induction 
Rzg'ulafor 



L-O 



\Sec, 



Syn. Conver+er. 



01/ Switch 



One Phase 
o-f R.C. 



Fig. 91. — Connection of a three-phase synchronous converter to a polyphase induction 

regulator. 



Compensating 
I9es/stance Shunt 



i^o- 



CTTi 



S/ic^e 



Ma/'n 
Contacts 



I I fbtent/'a/ 

yW/hcOn^ 

Iblf'ne I 

Compensating 
Wind/ng 

Main Control 
Maffne± 



Generator 
mayt>e shunt or 
com/poctnal wound 

\ 




Fig. 92. — Connection of a Tirrill regulator for a direct-current generator. Regulation of 
the current in the generator field winding is obtained by periodically short-circuiting the 
field rheostat. Rising voltage inserts the rheostat into the circuit, while the falling voltage 
short-circuits it. In operation, the short-circuiting contact is in continuous vibration. 



56 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




■S/)tjnt 



yO \ /9 ^ AT /£ ^s /J 

ID o o A 6 dl 



J*<? ioS/e 




^C<yua//ecr 









Fig. 93.— Connections of a Tirrill regulator for two compound machines, one of which is 
a reserve unit. The regulator can be operated on either one, but not on both at the same 
time. Several compound-wound generators can be connected in parallel and the regulator 
used on one. The regulated machine will take the fluctuations, and the equalizers will divide 
the load properly among the rest. When used for several generators in parallel it will not 
compensate for line drop. 



PO TEN TIAL REG ULA TORS 



57 



(Mo/r7 Control 
Magnet Remtance. 



^ 



Feeder 



Buj Bars 




6 eneraior 

rield , 
Equal/ ling 
ffheoitat 

held 
ffheostot 



Fig. 94. — Connections of Tirrill regulator for three generators operating in parallel, 
regulator is equipped with four relays and will compensate for line drop. 



The 




Fig. 95. — Connections of two Tirrill regulators for controlling separately excited gen- 
erators connected in parallel on a three-wire system. This system permits the compensation 
for line drop when using any number of generators in parallel. 



58 



WIRING XHAGR AM S OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Ma/n contacts Compsnsat/nO Current 

ai yV/na'/r7^ rrar^formgr- 




Acne/d Accelerator 
ffheo5tat 



Fiu. 96. — Connections of a Tirrill regulator for small or medium size exciter. 




Cic'ter- SuscJ 



MC Gc^^crcfCor 



Fig. 97. — Connections of a Tirrill regulator for two exciters, one of which is larger than the 
other. Regulator equipped with three relays. 



POTENTIAL REGULATORS 



59 



Current 
Trcrnsformer 



M<7//} Contacts 




/?e/ayAfag'net 

For crc^'asC/'/T^ 
CompensaC/r!^ 

Aeyers/'rj:$ 



Fig. 97A.— Tirrill regulator with two exciters and several generators. 



£xeer/?o/ Res/stcnce 



/wv>. /vw\ /wv\ 



Current Trans former^ feetf^rj 




Fig. 97B. — Tirrill regulator with three exciters and several generators. 



60 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Ei 



J>D A»0 ^O J*l 



1/ 0-e Qj 64/ D-^ U^ tJ^ 



f3-l 



fi ri n ti.n 






U-iL ,!£. a. J. 



mg 



3 






jWKOStat 



*Hv^ 



ILr< 



AC Su-3 OarJ 



l\^ 









Fig. 98. — External connections of a Tirrill regulator for three exciters. The regulator is 

equipped with five relays. 



/feivrs/ns'\ 



S 



m 







1 Sw/ic/i 



Contacts 

ACConiro/ 
Afognet 



Oia/3tn'tch for 
Co/T>pc/)sating 



@ 



k 



m 



@ ^ a ^ 











^ 



f\ 



^ 



a a 



^/■oni y/ev^ 



S/ng/e fo/e \ 
O/scorynsct/ng Str/ich 



Fig. 99. — Internal connections of the Tirrill regulator shown in Fig. 98. 



SECTION VI 
SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS 



SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS 63 

IvAAAWWy WwWVW VW\AAWVW VVWVWWA' VWWWAAa/ WWAAW\a/ lwMWA*vVWv^/VW \aa^\vwvww// 



iv\AA/V-_AA/VVV_7VVVV^ KaaAA IwWV 




Three rPhase A 




Kaaaa 



Three -Phase Y 



/WVVVwWs WyVAAA 







Three-Phase T 







Two-Phase 



VWAVMaJ WAAAW/vV VVAAWWW 



[w 



/WW^^ ^^AAAA 



2'f 




3 -'^^<4i>'2 

^1 

Six-Phase A 



wWWWWv UwM\VW WVVWWVW 
kA/WV kAAAA2kAAAA5 



AAAAA /WV\A AAAV\ 




I L 



Six-Phase Y 



WWVWVVWWWW VWWWW\AVWV 



A^WVKAAAA KAAAAAAA 
. L_L 



2' 




Six-Phase T 



VWVWWW// WAWMWV WAWA/WW 



,V\^ /\/\AAAa2' 




jWAAAA. 



Six-Phase Diametrical 



Fig. 100. — PJethods of connecting transformers to synchronous converters. 



64 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




To. Line . 

A T" A 




Transformer No. 1 Transf onner No. 2 Transformer No. 3 




Armature Windintj 



Starting Motor 
Winding 



Fig. 101. — Delta-delta transformer connections for synchronous converter with induction 

starting motor. 



V\AAA/N,AA«WM 

Transformer No. 1 Transformer No. 3 Transformer No. 3 

/V\A^v\ Ayv\/\A /\Ayv\A 



Armature "Winding 




atai-ting Moteip 
Winding 



Fig. 102. — Star-star transformer connections for synchronous converter with induction starting 

motor. 



SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS 



65 




/\/\/\/vA/^vA /v^^^y^^^^^ 




£) 




B 



Fig. 103. — Two-phase three-wire transformer connections for synchronous converter with 

induction starting motor. 







Fig. 104. — Two-phase four-wire transformer connections for synchronous converter with 

induction starting motor. 



J L 



f 



Transformer No. 1 Transformer So. Z Transformer No. 3 




Commutator 



prgyyTl Series Field ^ 



Armature AVinJiiig 

Fig. 105.— Delta-star transformer connections for synchronous converter operating on three- 
wire system. 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Phase A 
Transformer No. 1 



Phase B 
Transformer No. 2 




D.C. S Wire System 



(jJJJJijyJ Series Field 
Middle or Neutral Wire 
— ^ *- 

__p^^""nseries_^ld 



Commutator 



Fig. 106. — Two-phase four-wire transformer connections for synchronous converter operating 

on a three-wire system. 

Case's' Case'C _ ^ 

OthermseaiCaseA^T/ininel Otherwise 03 CastiW^Tft PonmJ 

Cose'/9'y9TflflaneJfore^CiC:>nneceee/ /SrYAConnecCeclTI-ansformer forA&Connecte</ Tronsformee 

TfXlnsforrrKrw/ChTyjoe^fbrmfrSw/teJ^ with7yperrcrm/< Switch vifith Type fTorm H, Switch 



Iff 



v> 



^Vo/tnteter 



\6rounetSua 

^— r- 



O p 

/teceptac/e-^''^ 



Mam 3u3es 



Tri/D Co// SwiCch- 



Synchrcni z/n^ Bu^ea 

,^ 5yncMtr>'Zinff 
fi/ug 



ES"; 



Main Tyonafbrmer 



I 



Coup/ing 



Snatches ft ' 
O// Switch 



Grot^ncfecf 



fCn 



fuses'^ 
Gree/Jlomp 
(Open 



Ofertxx^ 
/le/oy 






Oil Switch 

Operating 

Buses onPon& 






i""' f^iM* I v\/> . t iws n r'^t''^~r"'^t^^~r^^'^ r'^ 



HeactiveCo//s 




ToA/ejtt Trahsformer 



w 



■\*>/^ 



;& Blower Motor 

Synchronizing Connections IShourn Ottttedlforfibtanta 
Startect fnynOC Chd or D^ Induction Motor 



Fig. 107. — Connections for a three-phase converter, high-voltage panel, low-voltage panel, 
starting panel and blower-motor panel. Showing three methods of connection. 



SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS 



67 



y/tei 



C<7se/f 
vTe/ufith Type ffbrmff Switch 

! 



\Wtrr7eter\ 
^l/lrnmeter \ 

0} 



Cou/s///?ff 



Case S ot^ertv/se as Caaz^ 
^H/ t flane/ with Ty/se/^fbr/n fjS w/tch 
/^eiin 



J^eceptacie '.' 



c^^i^ 



■Switch 



^ 1 ^^^J 




Tirmina/B/ocM on 
0//Sw/tch 



5ynch/v^/z/^Su^es 
/fed lampfC/02ee^)~. 



Green Lamp(Opent ^^ 

OifSuv/tch O/iera tiny Buses on Ai/ie/ 




fytain Transformer 



/^eactiireCoi/ 

Two Tio. or Switches 



Synchronizinff Connections (Shown Dotteel) 
for /fotaries Start/ng from D.C. Cnef 



Sivitch 

I * ToA/eJCt Transformer 

fuses 



To B/orver Motor 



Fig. 108. — Connections for a six-phase synchronous converter and blower motor for air-blast 
transformers. Showing two methods of connection. 



68 WIRING J)IAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Switches 
on O'/ Switch 



^ Urmina/S/oc* 
onOi/Switc/t 




ToA/ext Tfunatbrmer 

To B/oiver Motor 
inducti^ Motor 

Fig. 109.— Connections of a six-phase converter \yith starting motor. Showing two methods 

of coimection. 



SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS 



69 










^1.-.- 



FiG. 110. — Connections of the direct-cur- 
rent side of a synchronous converter. 




\fif77nrtet6r 



Syvitch 

71 



3 



w 



m 




Potartta/ Buses 



Start/ng /!f>eo3tae 
Switch noCmounCe^ 
on SMiec/iBoard 



Watt- hour meter 



■*parr/e/ci area* up 

3hou/ai remain in upper poa/ti^n 



Synch r Comforter 

Illh 
1 



I ^SpeeaUmJtOwlea 



-BuaienumHeO 



Fig. 111. — Connections of an inverted 
synchronous converter equipped with a 
speed-hmiting device. 



70 



WIRIXG DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 






Carbon BrsaA 
C/rcL//'t Breaker 
Mow Vo/Cage Release 

Ma/n Bu3 Bar - 

TID /^mmet er 



/^/leoj Cart /ianc/t^'/jee/ "K ^ 



Potent/a/ /?ecepCac/e 
Care/ /-/o/cyer 
/Rheostat C/ia/n \ 

Qoerat/h^ Mechan/j/r)] 

Type D-/Jd Lever 5w/tc/i 



■/?ecorc///ip yyattmeter 



/Vat tmeter/^e^ /stance ■ 



k\ 



M 



l<^ 



M 



.H — /6"- — H 

Fig. 112. — Panel for direct-current side of a synrhronous converter for railway service. Rat- 
ing: up to lUUOkw. 



SYNCHRONOUS CONVERTERS 



71 



Qoc/f i^/etY 



Positive Qus 



I Low Vo/toge 
I Re/ease — 
I Of^rni'o 

Resistance 




z Circuit Breaher 

f / BoCCer'y.t)e//ancf connecCions 

i[< CODS Tunn/snea byca5Con7B 

i[ 

.1_ } 7b /I /a/-^ Be// 

Low Voltage Release Bu^ 
\ Potentia/ 
) Bu5e 5 



FfecepLac/Q 



/^tieostat 



4: Speed Limit 

Device 



Egua/izer Bus 
Negati\/e Bus 



Fig. 113.- 



S round — 
-Connections for a synchronous converter panel shown in Fig. 112. 



SECTION VII 
BATTERIES AND BOOSTERS 



BATTERIES AND BOOSTERS 



75 




Fig. 114. — Connections for a small two-wire storage battery plant. B is an overload 
circuit breaker, and U B an underload circuit breaker. Switch S2 is thrown to the right when 
charging the battery, and to the left when discharging it. 



A -C. Supply 
'no or ZZO Volf 



Auto Transformer 



Svstcfinina 

'■>fr 




Suppiem&nfarv 
"starHng ' 
Resietanie 



i|i|i|i|l|i|i|lH 

dcritery 
Fig. 115. — Connections of a mercury-vapor rectifier for charging a storage battery. 



76 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



C/rKr///: fir4>fj/irr;r 




Fig. 116. — Mercury-arc rectifier panel for automobile battery charging system. 



^esisidnca 




Connect fto/4. Oto/3. rto/5 
f/OVAC. Line Vo/toce \^o''{fto30/o/tsO. C Connect Jto/.Hto7.ffto7:onaotoAf 

^^0\^AC. Line i^o/iage{^'"''t^^°l{'^°'^^^^ Connect Jto/.Hto7./9totondOtoAf 
\: '■!,•* . • • . J .6M-/Z.ff.S. . O.A/ 

330MC - ■ {^'"^l^oj^i^^o/tsOCConnectMo/.Htoy.fftoTandOtoM 

\-/e0./75 ■ - - . J.6.H-/Z,R.S. . 0-N 

Fig. 117.— Connections for the mercury-arc rectifier panel shown in Fig. 116. 



BATTERIES AND BOOSTERS 



77 



^^^|^MMM^rlM^T^^Tl^T^^^^'^l^HH 
I ' — ~1 i 




EncfceLLs 



Fig. 118. 



Fig. 119. 



Fig. 118. — End-cell switch for a storage battery. B is an auxiliary contact connected to 
the main contact through a resistance C, but otherwise insulated from it. This auxiliary con- 
tact prevents the opening of the circuit, and the resistance C prevents the short-circuiting of 
the cell connected across adjacent point. 

Fig. 119. — Connections for a shunt booster system. With switch S2 down, the booster, 
B, assists the generator, G, to charge the battery. With it up, the battery is ready to discharge, 
the e.m.f. being regulated with an end-cell switch, S4. 




Fig. 120. — Connections for a non-reversible automatic booster system. The series field, 
S, opposes the generator, e.m.f. lamps are connected across the generator, where the e.m.f. 
remains constant, while the motors are connected across the battery, where the e.m.f. drops 
as the load comes on. 




Fig. 121. — Connections for a reversible-automatic booster system. The series field, S, opposes 

the generator e.m.f. 



78 



WIRIN<i: DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 





Fig. 122. 



Fig. 123. 



Fig. 122. — Connections for an externally controlled automatic booster system (Hubbard 
system). The series field, S, of the exciter, E, opposes the e.m.f. of the generator, G, and under 
normal conditions the exciter e.m.f. just neutralizes the generator e.m.f., and there is no cur- 
rent in the field winding, f. An increase in the generator current increases the exciter e.m.f. 
and produces e.m.f. in the booster, B, which assists the battery to discharge. 

Fig. 12.3. — Connections for an externally controlled automatic booster system (Endt'a 
system). L is a carbon-resistance regulator; S a solenoid, and D a spring. When the load 
is normal, the resistances, Ri and R2, are equal, and there is no current in the field winding, 
f . Any change in the value of the current through S will produce a change in the field strength 
of the booster, corresponding with the load both as to direction and intensity. 




Fig. 124. — Connections for an externally controlled automatic booster system (Bijur). 
S is a solenoid; D a spring; Ci and C2 taps from a resister; Q and Qo vessels containing mercury. 
The magnet and spring are So designed that for a given current, the pulls of the magnet and 
the spring are the same, independent of the position of the lever, L; therefore, motion will 
continue until the current returns to its normal value and the maximum evaluation of the 
current is fixed by the pull necessary to overcome the friction of the moving parts. 



SECTION VIII 
SUB-STATIONS 



SUB-STATIONS 



81 




82 



WIRING, DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Stcfion A — B. 




B 


m 


i 
1 

H 










t 


11 






lac/^frJ 


\ I 






^ \ 




! 


\ 














',..! 



Section C D- 



Fig. 126. — Transformer substation for single-phase 3300-volt railway distribution. Trans- 
mission line 3300 volts. 









-^.- 



Ho^i:^-»^- 






C/^^e Co// 
%/.^j^6/?/hp^/rBs6^r 



7?-o//<s/ 



M 



-r 




^ 7ro//fy (Str/6c/>es 






6>//<^/6c/> 



Fig. 127.— Connection for substation shown in Fig. 126. 



SUB-STATIONS 



83 




l;;;5jjj;jij;?ijmi!!m^j!jjj^^ 



84 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 129. — Longitudinal section through typical synchronous converter substation. 33,000- 

volt transmission line. 




Fig. 130. — Section of typical synchronous converter substation (Oregon Electric Railway). 

60,000-volt transmission line. 



SUB-STATIONS 



85 




Fig. 131. — Plan of substation shown in Fig. 130. 



86 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Incoming Lines 



OisconnecUng swiichi 
Choke coils 



ghtning 
arresters 



Trtrrtsformer 

buses 



Series transformer 



r® 




# 



(FbtentLol bus 



L^!^^^"^^ I ■Station Lamps 



O 9 O 9 < 



"^Feeder bus 
feeder sketches 



La 



Converter 



Lightning 
arrester 



'llH 



P 



tmriH 



Fig. 132. — Wiring diagram of substation shown in Fig. 130. 



SUB-STATIONS 



87 




^M'^-^'^'Mi 



Fig. 133. — Typical synchronous converter substation (West Shore Raihoad). 60,000- volt 

transmission line. 



88 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Bus (Crounaea) - 

Bus - ' 



Doited L eod^ to be macif 
ortiy on one Pone / in eoch 
J Boana 



Fig. 134. — Connections for typical substation shown in Fig. 133. 



SECTION IX 
D. C. MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 



MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 



91 






1*^ 



^i 




92 



WIRING, DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Za.777ps 
-O O O O — Cr 



d. c. feeder' + 




li£htninff arrester- 



■ trans, connections .^x^Jtt^ 
^for /6S00 voZts r/ieostat 



equalizer switch 



Fig. 136. — Wiring diagram for portable substation shown in Fig. 135. 



5wing/ng 2c&fFbne/i 



Bracket 



iZOOYJ^A 



ecSGPaneli IB00V.400J<w 



Incoming line 
JJJ 



afi e Choke CoiU 
I "*■ Liohtninq i* /nterlcc/ 




I Cxciter 

S/nchronoui 
Motor 
^m — Boi (Srounalea) 



. equalizer 



Fig. 137. — Connections for an a.c.-d.c. motor-generator substation. 



D. C. MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 



93 





Fici. 138. — Plain series motor with starter. 
The speed varies with the load. 



Fig. 139. — Reversing series motor with 
starter. 




Fig. 140. 



-Series motor. Speed regulation by inserting resistance in series. 
resistance decreases the speed. 



Increase in 




Fig. 141. — Series motor. Speed regulated by inserting resistances in shunt with the field 
winding. Decrease in resistance increases the speed. 



94 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 142. — Plain shunt motor with 
starter. Speed practically constant, drops 
slowly with heavy load. 



Fig. 1-13. — Reversing shunt motor with 
starter. 





Fig. 1-44. Fig. 145. 

Fig. 144. — Shunt motor. Speed regulated by inserting resistance in series with the field 
winding. Increase in resistance increases speed. 

Fig. 145. — Plain compound motor. Speed characteristics depend upon design. Series 
coil tends to decrease speed with load when connected to assist the shunt winding, and when 
connected in opposition tends to increase the speed with the load. When used to increase 
the speed it is called a "differential winding." 



D. C. MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 



95 




Fig. 146. — Compound motor with rheostat 
and field circuit for field regulation. 




Fig. 147. — Compound motor with rheo- 
stats in both field and armature circuits for 
speed regulation. 




Fig. 148. — Inter-pole shunt motor. Speed adjusted by resistance in shunt field circuit. 
Speed can be varied over a large range without sparking and at constant output. 



96 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 





o 
o 
o 


y 








o 
o 


'\ 


i 




pO 




^ 







Fig. 149. — Multiple voltage speed control. Switch connected to 1 gives the speed corre- 
sponding to 220 volts, and connected to 2, that corresponding to 110 volts. The field strength 
remaining constant, the speed is directly proportional to the voltage across the armature. 



Motor 



Fig. 150. — Multiple voltage speed control. Three speeds: 

Switches Speed in per cent. 
1-3 1. 

2-4 1.25 

1-4 2.25 



vwvwww^ 




Fig. 151. — Series-parallel speed control. Switch 1 closed; motors in series; speed-1; switches 
a and b closed; 1 open; motors in parallel; speed-2. 



D. C. MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 



97 




® 



®-^ UmAdi 




Fig. 152. Fig. 153. 

Fig. 152. — Compensated series motor with four series coils which can be connected in 
series or parallel according to the series-parallel method of control. The compensating winding 
prevents sparking. 

Fig. 153. — Motor-generator speed control. The motor, m, may be of any type, gas or 
electric (a.c. or d.c). The speed of M, the working motor, is controlled by varying the field 
of the generator, G. 




Fig. 154. — Ward Leonard motor-generator speed control. The speed is controlled by 
regulating the field strength of the generator, G. The motor is reversed by reversing the 
field of the generator. All power must be supplied from the line through motor m. 




Um/-3:3i 




Fig. 155. — Ward Leonard boost and retard speed control sy.stem. The voltage of the 
generator, G, is either added to or subtracted from that of the line by adjusting the field. 
Speed controlled by adjusting field strength of G. Only part of the power is supplied from 
motor m. To obtain speeds below normal, G runs as a motor, m becomes a generator, and 
returns to the power of the line. 



98 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 1 56. — Teaser system of speed control (Bullock) . The generator of the motor-generator 
set is wound for low voltage and large current so that in starting it can supply full load current 
at such a low voltage that no starting rheostat is needed, and the desired torque can be developed 
since it depends only upon the value of the current and the field flux. By increasing the voltage 
the motor can be speeded up until it can be thrown directly on the line and the teaser cut out. 
This arrangement is suitable for motors called on to operate at speeds much below normal, as 
in printing press drives. 



'•; 



rO- 





Fig. 157. Fig. 158. 

Fig. 157. — Double armature control (General Electric). Two similar windings on the 
same armature with a commutator on each end. Field the same as any ordinary motor (shunt 
or compound). With switches 1 and 2 closed, the armatures are in series and run at half speed. 
With switches a and b closed, the armatures are in parallel and run at full speed. These two 
normal speeds can be varied somewhat by varying the shunt field and cutting out the series 
field with switch c. 

Fig. 158. — Double armature speed control (C & C). Two windings on one armature 
with a commutator on each end. The field is the same as any other motor (shunt or compound). 
The armature has 2x turns in series, and the other has 3x; so that the normal speed of the arma- 
tures are to each other as 3 is to 2; that is, inversely as the number of the turns. If the windings 
are connected in series (first point of the controller) 5x turns are effective and the speed is a 
minimum; when connected in opposition, 3.c— 2j;=x turns are effective and the speed is a 
maximum. Two intermediate running speeds are obtained by using each armature alone, and 
slight variations from any one of the four running speeds are obtained by resistance in the 
field circuit or in series with the armature. 



MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 



99 




100 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




SECTION X 
A. C. MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 



ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 103 





Fig. 161. — Three-phase synchronous motor. 
Stationary field. 



Fig. 162. — Three-phase synchronous motor. 
Revolving field. 




ToAioCo/' 

Fig. 163. — Connections of an auto-transformer used for starting a three-phase synchronous 

motor. 




■Stato/~ 




Stator' 



Fig. 164. Fig. 165. 

Fig. 164. — Three-phase induction motor. Squirrel-cage secondary. When running at full 

speed one lead can be disconnected and the motor will continue to operate single-phase. 

Fig. 165. — Two-phase induction motor. Squirrel-cage secondary. When running at 
full speed one phase can be disconnected and the motor will continue to operate on the other 
phase. 



104 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 166. — Connections of self-contained auto-starter for three-phase induction motor with 
squirrel-cage secondary. Rating: 300 amp. per phase up to 500 volts. 




Fig. 167. — Connections of self-contained auto-starter for two-phase induction motor with 
squirrel-cage secondary. Rating: 300 amp. per phase up to 550 volts. 




Fig. 168. — Polyphase induction motor. Starting panel. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 105 



Trip Coll-t 




Fig. 169. — Connections for the auto-starter panel shown in Fig. 167 when used with three- 
phase motor. Rating: 100 amp. per phase, from 1000 to 2500 volts. 




Fiti. 170. — Connections for the auto-starter panel shown in Fig. 167 when used with two-phase 
motor. Rating: 100 amp. per phase, from 1000 to 2500 volts. 



106 



WIRING. DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Afo/n 6l/j Bai~s 






Taps 




To /^ocor 






3 Connccc/on Soeyr-<^' 
or> CofrtpensaCon 




y Oo'^neccion 



y ConnecCi'on 



Fig. 171. Fig. 172. 

Fig. 171. — Connections for starting three-phase induction motor where the starting switch 
is external to the auto-transformer case. Rating: 300 amp. per phase up to 550 volts, 100 
amp. per phase above 2500 volts. 

Fig. 172. — Connections for starting any number of three-phase induction motors with one 
auto-transformer. Motors must be started in succession and when all are running the mag- 
netizing switch is opened. Rating: 300 amp. per phase up to 550 volts, and 100 amp. per 
phase above 2500 volts. 




Fig. 173. — Three-phase induction motor with wound secondary. The resistance, R, 
connected across the slip rings may be internal or external. It is left in circuit until the motor 
has come up to speed, when it is short-circuited. When external to the motor, it is sometimes 
used to regulate the speed, although it is a very inefficient method of speed regulation. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 107 




Ammeter 



Core/ Mo/cfen 



S. T.O/7 S/vJCch r-^= 







7r/p Co/As 
Ammeter' 



Motor 




JP/^asG 



2P/yc7se 



\*' — /9 A 

Fig. 174. — Starting and control panel for three-phase induction motor with wonnd secondary 

and internal starting resistance. 




Diagram oi" Co.nnections 

Fig. 175. — Connections for three-point auto-starter for a two-phase induction motor. 



108 WIRING XflAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



TO 2 PHASE LINE 

L, Lv L, L, 




*n! I ; t t i ! ,1^ 



n~tTl l- 



STARTING CONTROLLER 



TO i PHASE MOTOa 



Fig. 176.— Connections of a six-point auto-starter with a two-phase induction motor, .500 volts 




Fio. 177.— Connections of a six-point auto-starter for a three-phase induction motor, 100 volts. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 109 



TO 8 PHASE VHi. 




TO 3 Phase motor 



Fig. 178. — Coiinectiou.s of a six-point auto-.starter for a three-phase induction motor, 1000 to 

6000 volts. 



TO } fiHIiSZ LINE. ■ 
tjPMAStii, l,p>"Sf|l 



— ;j- 



! WSITIOHS OF ?TART£R MANOVE 

I OFr. i2]««a a9482i 

: -. I ! • ; ! ' 



^;!« 



ip 



■i^H: 



f-f 






i^^- 





7.»H fJ 






STAftT'NO CONTROLLER. 



■lly-AA-yA^'i 



TO 2 Phase motor 



Fig. 17'J.— Connections of a six-point auto-starter for two-phase induction motor, 1000 to 

2000 volts. 



110 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 180. — Two induction motors connected in tandem or concatenation. The primary 
motor must have a wound secondary. The second motor may have either a wound secondary 
or a squirrel-cage secondary. Both motors are mounted on the same shaft. When connected 
in parallel across the line, the motors run at full speed, and when connected in concatenation, 
they run at half speed, thus giving two running speeds. 



Star/ Run 



Spring Rele a s e.—rLA 



Resistance 

rvVVWH 



Reactance 




Fig. 181. — Connections for starting single-phase induction motor with three-phase wind- 
ing, ratings below one horsepower. When starting, throw the switch and press it against the 
starting contacts until full speed is attained, then release the starting handle, which will be 
pushed up by the release spring, disconnecting the starting resistajice and reactance. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 111 



Pr/mgyy Circu/t. 



r-y Pr/mary Str/tc/i 
r~J crnc^ /'use Sot. 




Fig. 182. — Arrangement of apparatus for starting split-phase motor shown in Fig. 181. 



S 



Start 



? t] [^ 



9 9 

k Main Thase — 5k- 



FiG. 183. — Connections of starting switch for single-phase induction motor with two-phase 
winding. Resistance, A, is connected across one phase when starting. 



112 WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Aux. rUase 



\/\/\/^/^y\y\/\/^^A^/A^^^ 



Fig. 184. — Connections of starting switch for single-phase induction motor with two-phase 
winding. Resistance, A, is connected in series when starting. 



pAAAAAAA. 




Fig. 185. — Connections for starting single-phase induction motor with three-phase winding. 



I 



ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 113 



ri mary. 



Q Q_ 



Lyiyyvyi'iLl 



Swiicfi and 
Fuse- Box. 



Secondary. 




Fusei. 



SforHng-Box. 



Fig. 186. — Arrangement of apparatus for starting split-phase motor shown in Fig. 185. 



114 



WIRING. DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Line 



Fig. 187. — Connections for starting single-phase induction motor with three-pha.se wind- 
ing. The phases are independent and arranged so as to be connected in star when starting, and 
in delta when running. 




3e,o/-tirtQ Oor 




A^oCor: 



Fig. 188. — Arrangement of apparatus for starting split-phase motor .shown in Fig. 187. 



ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS AND SPEED CONTROL 

Trolley 



115 



Series 
Held. 




Conduc'f'ive 
'ensa^ion. 



Com^i 



/nducfive 
Comae nsa -fion. 



Compensator. 




Fig. 189. — Single-phase series motor with 
compensated armature. 



Fig. 190. — Tap method of control for 
single-phase series motors. The voltage 
across the motors is varied by connecting to 
taps brought out from an auto-transformer. . 




Fig. 191.— Tap control of single-phase series motors, using preventive coils. The preven- 
tive coils eliminate sparking at the transformer taps and prevent the short-circuiting of leads 
included between two adjacent taps. The operation of these coils is explained in the section on 
railway equipment, see Fig. 385. 




VvrJ^t'^t, 






Transformer 



Cxcih'ny 
Tirans/or/nsr. 



Compensalirtg 
Field. 



Fig. 192 —Com- 
pensated single-phase 
repulsion motor. 



) Compensafif7ff 
r/e/d. 

Fig. 193. — Winter-Eichberg 
single-phase motor. 




Fig. 194. — Latour single- 
phase motor. 



SECTION XI 
CONSTANT POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION 



CONSTANT POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION 



119 



4 


1 
a ^ -* 3 


A,- 


1 ..1 




Loop System. 



Spiral Loop. 




vvv 



331 



h: 



.JISL 



Tree System. 





Three-Wire Central Station 
Distribution 



Closet System. 

Fig. 195. — Distribution systems. 



120 WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




f » <^ <> 6 <;> •<{, 4 ,^^^ 



Two-Wire Distribution. 
Fig. 196. — Distribution systems. 



CONSTANT POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION 



121 




Closet System of Wiring. 









-&■©■ 
■©■e- 




Series Distribution, Storage Battery^ Tliree-Wire Sub-station. 
Fig. 197. — Distribution systems. 



122 



WIRING ^DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 







fiiillfililf 



1^ 



-e- 



•|l|»|l|>l'l'l'l» ^>U>? "_ 

I no Q © ' 

Series Distribution, Storage Battery, Sub-station. 



() () 



() () () 
C) C) () 



Series — Multiple. 



() 



I 



¥~^ 



O C) C) () 



Series— Multiple, with Neutral. 



■^ C) C) () () () () () 



q) (t) (P (p Q c) 9 

I -L 



Three-"Wife, with Three-Brush Dynamo. 



() 



() <) () () 



1 



() () () () 



Three-Wire, Two Dynamos. 

Fig. 198. — Distribution systems. 



CONSTANT POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION 



123 



O S^ 



() C) <) () C) () 



,T - 



C) C) () () <) o 



Three- Wire, Storage Battery. 






O, 



Gt 



Five and Seven-Wire Systems. 



^ 



fyrr 



if 



m 



Feeder and Main System. 
Fig. 199. — Distribution systems. 



SECTION XII 
CONSTANT CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 



CONSTANT CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 



127 



Open Circuiting 
Plug Switches 



Secondarv 
— X— X— X— X— X— X — 

Lamps 

Lightning Arrester 
OJO 



Arc Ammeter 



CuTent 

Transformer 
Omit fop 
25 Light* 



Wattmeter 



Potential _ 
Tran sfor mer 




C6Pistant Current 
Transformer 



< 
'Primary Plug Switch Q 



T 



primary 
Back View 

Fig. 200. — Panel and connections for series arc lighting system with constant-current 

transformers. 




f^r /merry 



^GQ on cherry. 



Fig. 201. — Connections for a 2.5-lamp constant-current transformer. For 60 per cent, 
load, connect 1 and 3 to the line and B and C to the load; for SO per cent. load, connect 1 and 
3 to the line and C and B to the load; for full load, connect 2 and 3 to the line and A and B to 
the load. 



128 



WIRINQ DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




CONSTANT CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 



129 




Fig. 203. — Connections for 50-lamp constant-current transformer. 
For 60 per cent, load, connect 1 and 4 to the line and J and K to the load. 
For 70 per cent, load, connect 1 and 4 to the line and H and K to the load. 
For 80 per cent, load, connect 1 and 4 to the line and G and K to the load. 
For 90 per cent, load, connect 2 and 4 to the line and G and K to the load. 
For 100 per cent, load, connect 3 and 4 to the line and G and K to the load. 



130 



WIRINQ DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



r 



Z^/77/PvS. 









fSccon o^c/i^y. 




■^ 



Lcrmp^. 



y^ rrs*ySf€>n 
-^O o- — 



1' 







^e'conc/ary. 



Fig. 204. — Connections for 100-lamp constant-current transformer. 
For 60 per cent, load, connect A to 1, B to 6, 2 to 5, load between C and E, F and H. 
For 70 per cent, load, connect A to 1, B to 6, 2 to 5, load between C and E, F and G. 
For 80 per cent, load, connect A to 1, B to 6, 2 to 5, load between C and D, F and G. 
For 90 per cent, load, connect A to 3, B to 6, 2 to 5, load between C and D, F and G. 
For 100 per cent, load, connect A to 3, B to 6, 4 to 5, load between C and D, F and G. 



CONSTANT CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 



13J 




P. 


o 
o 


iin 

1 14=7-' 




■^^ 




o 




132 



WIRING: DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 





5 a 3 



CONSTANT CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 



133 



.ine Arresters 



Station Arresters 



Line Arrestees 




Oround CirQund. 



Fig. 209. — Connections for a direct-current arc lighting system using Wood generators. 



134 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




CONSTANT CURRENT DISTRIBUTION 



135 




10-100 VOLT LAMPS IN SERIES. 



POWER 
PLANT 



Fig. 212. — Series incandescent lighting system, each lamp shunted by a reactance coil. 



136 



WIRING ^DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



J/0-/2S Vo/t A.C. Source 

fy^ "Hi 




Constant Current 
Transformer'^ W/'cn 
/feactance 

QO ^ Locj'cfjijp-: 

/OOyo'Loacf rap 



5l/vJtch 



To 2200Vo/t A.C. Source 

Fig. 213. — Direct-current arc lighting system working from an alternating current supply 
through a constant-current transformer and a mercury arc rectifier. 



SECTION XIII 
LAMP MECHANISM CONNECTIONS 



LAMP MECHANISM CONNECTIONS 



139 





Fig. 215. 

Fig. 214. — Internal connections of a single glower and Nernst lamp. At the beginning 
the resistance of the glower is very high so that very little current is carried by the cut-out 
coil in series with it. The heater raises the temperature of the glower, and as the temperature 
goes up its resistance decreases until the current reaches such a value that the cut-out coil 
opens the heater circuit. The ballast is a resister with a high temperature coefficient of resist- 
ance that tends to prevent fluctuations in the current, due to variation in the voltage. 
Fig. 215. — Internal connections of direct-current arc lamp for operation on multiple circuits. 





Fig. 216. — Internal connections of an al- 
ternating-current arc lamp for operation on 
multiple circuits. 



Fig. 217. — Internal connections of a direct- 
current arc lamp for series operation 



140 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Srar^f^3/^on 




Fig. 218. — Internal connections of a direct- 
current arc lamp for series operation. 



Fig. 219. — Internal connections of an 
alternating-current arc lamp for series 
operation. 





Fig. 220. — Internal connections of a 200- 
volt lamp with twu carbons in series. 



Fig. 221. — Internal connections of a 
series parallel direct-current lamp. Groups 
of five lamps in series are connected across 
500-volts circuits. 



LAMP MECHANISM CONNECTIONS 



141 



tkftrkoltf 

ccnnecfet/ 
f9 frame 



5toi 


^i 


IL 


-Ji 




Fig. 222. — Internal connections of a mag- 
netite arc lamp (General Electric). 




frvme fffSenes 
CulwtCoila cofint^rti 
tvNe^nt Terminal 
thivu^h Lamp frame 



Shunt CirtautUagnU 
Spool is msvlattrf 
from Lamp Fnm» 



Fig. 223. — Internal connections of a mag- 
netite arc lamp (Westinghouse Electric). 





Fig. 224. — Connections of a self-starting 
mercury vapor lamp (Cooper-Hewitt). 



Fig 225. — Connections of a Moore tube 
vapor lamp. 7 is a feeder valve which is 
operated by a solenoid and maintains the 
constant pressure in the tube by admitting 
more gas when the vacuum increases. 



SECTION XIV 
RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 




RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 
Line U L/ne — 



145 




(P/aCe 

FiQ. 226. ■ Fig. 227. 

Fig. 226. — Connections for a dial rheostat with loop resister. Contact arm being arranged 
to slide directly over the surface of the resister. 

Fig. 227. — Two units of the type shown in Fig. 226 connected in series. 



t/ns 




•19 JvYs ■^^ 



IP/ate 

Fig. 228. — Connections of a dial rheostat resister arranged with contact buttons, over the 
surface of which the contact arm glides. 




Fig. 229. — Two plates of the type shown in Fig. 228 connected in series. 



146 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 230. — Connections of a two-arm dial rheostat resister. This rheostat is equipped 
with two arms, one short and one long; the short one connects the line with the inner circle of 
contact buttons, while the long one is insulated from the short one and connects the outer 
circle with the intermediate circle. The short arm is fastened rigidly to the hand-wheel. 
When both arms are in line and on the first point, all resistance is short-circuited. Rotation of 
the hand-wheel to the right carries the short arm around, leaving the long arm in its original 
position. When the short arm has made a half revolution, a projection on it strikes a pin in 
the long arm and carries it along, inserting the resister connected to the outer buttons. Move- 
ment in the opposite direction causes the short arm to carry the long arm with it. 




Fig. 231. — Barrel rheostat. 



For calculation of dimensions, etc. 
Electrical Engineers," Section 3. 



see "Standard Handbook for 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



147 




Fig. 232. — Water rheostat. For calculation of dimensions, etc., see "Standard Handbook for 

Electrical Engineers." 



500 yolts 
\ 



Resistance Cric/6 
Water Rheostat 

-E3- 




FiG. 233. Fig. 234. 

Fig. 233. — Home-made rheostat of large current-carrying capacity for reducing 500-volt 
circuit to 110 volts. The resister grids are of the type used on railway cars. The voltage can 
be varied by the water rheostat. 

Fig. 234. — Connections for typical series-motor starter, with no load release, M, in series 
with the motor. The electromagnet, M, holds the rheostat arm on the last point while the 
motor is in operation, and if the circuit is opened at any point, this magnet releases and the coil 
spring returns the arm to the off position. 



148 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 235. — Typical series-motor starter with no-load release across the line. 




Fig. 236. — Typical shunt or compound motor starter with no-load release in series with 
the shunt field winding, and an overload release in series with the armature. The series wind- 
ing for a compound motor is shown dotted, connected between the points a and b, instead of 
the solid hne. If the current in the overload, S, which is in series with the armature, exceeds 
a predetermined value, the overload draws up its armature and short-circuits the electro- 
magnet, M, which then releases the rheostat arm. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



149 




Fig. 237. — Multi-switch starter for a compound motor. No-load release in series with the 
shunt field winding. In starting, resistance is cut out of the armature circuit by closing switches 
connected between the plus side of the hne and the contacts 1, 2, 3, etc., the last switch being 
held in position by the no-load release. The switch levers are mechanically interlocked so that 
when the last one is released by no-load magnet, the other ones are pulled out with it. 




Fig. 238. — Connections of a multi-switch starter for a compound motor with no-load 
release connected across the line. The switches are mechanically interlocked so that they can 
only be closed in the right order, and each one is held closed by the one preceding it. Switch 
1 is held by the no-load release, and the last switch, when open, short-circuits the no-load 
release at the point 0; therefore, when starting this short-circuit must be opened by pressing the 
push button, P, and holding it until all switches have been closed, the last one opening the 
circuit at 0. 



150 WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




'^AAA — I 

— ^AAMA/^ — I 



O^ 



Fig. 239. — Connections for multi-switch starter equipped with no-load and over-load 
releases. The starter operated precisely as the one shown in Fig. 238. An excess of current in 
the main circuit will close the over-load relay, G, and short-circuit the no-load release, M, which 
allows the first switch to drop out, and the others being mechanically interlocked with each 
other, will drop out in succession. 




Fig. 240. — Connections for a multi-switch starter used with parallel starting resistances. 
Closing the switches in rotation from left to right, connects more and more resistance in parallel 
until up to the last step, where the motor is connected direct to the line. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



151 




Fig. 241. — Connections for a full reversing shunt or compound starter, no-load releases being 
in series with the shunt field. The compound field winding is shown dotted. 




Fig. 242. — Connections for a self-starter of the sliding-contact type. Closing the main 
switch energizes the solenoid which slowly raises the rheostat arm against the action of a dash 
pot. At the end of its stroke, the projection, p, on the rheostat arm raises the contact arm, a, 
inserting the resistance, r, in series with the solenoid; in this manner cutting down the current 
to that value necessary to hold the plunger in its highest position. 



152 



WIRINOc DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 

To coniroUtng switch 







r<V 



Fig. 243. — Connections for self-starter with an auxiliary switch controlled from a dis- 
tance. If the main switch is closed, the motor may be started or stopped fron a distance by a 
single-pole switch. The operation is exactly the same as the starter shown in Fig. 242, except 
that the circuit of the solenoid magnet can be opened or closed at a distance by operating the 
auxiliary magnet switch, the main switch being left closed. 



I 




Fig. 244. — Connections for a two-solenoid self-starter controlled by a float switch. For 
operation of the float switch see Fig. 256. The main switch, which may be connected to a 
float in a tank, closes the main circuit with a resistance in series with the motor; at the same 
time the solenoid, 1, is energized, while solenoid, 2, is short-circuited by the contact piece at 
the top of solenoid 1. When 1 closes, short-circuiting part of the starting resistance, it lifts 
the contact piece at the top, and thus energizes .solenoid 2. Solenoid 2, in closing, short-circuits 
all the starting resistance and lifts the contact at the top, inserting a resistance in series with the 
solenoid windings. The control circuit is shown at the left. S represents the float switch; 1, 
the winding of solenoid 1; ai, the contact piece for solenoid 1; 2, .solenoid 2; a2, contact piece for 
solenoid piece over solenoid 2, and r, the resistance inserted in series with the solenoids when the 
motor is running. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



153 



vwv^/ — I 




's^o/^ 




Fig. 245. — Connections for a two-step self-starter operated by a pressure regulator. The 
control circuits are shown at the left, 1, 2 and 3 representing the solenoids; ai, a-i, and as the 
corresponding contact pieces above the plungers; r, resistances. The pressure governor is a 
sort of a pressure gage equipped with contacts. When the pressure reaches a certain minimum 
value, the "start" contact is closed, energizing solenoid 1. In closing, solenoid 1 connects the 
winding of solenoid 2 across the line. The plunger of solenoid 2 opens the contact arm a2, in- 
serting solenoid 3 in circuit, which in turn opens contact as, inserting the resistance, r, in series with 
the windings 2 and 3. When the pressure reaches a predetermined maximum value, the stop 
contact is closed and solenoid 1 short-circuited, whereupon all solenoids drop out, leaving the 
motor on open circuit. 



154 



WIRING' DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



High\Li 




Fig. 246. — Connections for a self-starter of the sliding-contact type operated with an 
auxihary electromagnet controlled by a pressure regulator of the type described in Fig. 245. 
The operation is the same as the starter shown in Fig. 243, except that the auxiliary magnet is 
arranged to hold itself in circuit until short-circuited by the pressure regulator when the prede- 
termined maximum pressure is reached. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



155 




Fig. 247. — Connections for three-phase induction motor self-starter. The main switch, 
S, is operated by a float in the tank. Closing the switch, S, energizes the main solenoid, S, which 
opens the inlet valve to the plunger which acts to cut out the starting resistance. In turning 
around, one of the rheostat arms opens the contact piece, a, inserting the resistance, r, in series 
with the solenoid, Si. The plunger which actuates the rheostat may be operated by air or 
water. 



156 



WIRING J^IAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 248. — Connections for a two-phase induction motor, self-starter. This starter works 
exactly the same as the one shown in Fig. 247, except that the resistance is inserted in the 
secondary circuit instead of the primary. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



157 




Fig. 249.— Connections for a two-phase induction motor self-starter connected in the 
secondary, arranged for operation by air pressure regulator, through auxiliary magnetic 
switch. 



158 



WIRING .DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 250. — Connections for a two-phase induction motor, self-starter, with starting resist- 
ance connected in the primary circuit. The operation is exactly the same as that of the starter 
shown in Fig. 249. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



159 




^ WV — * 



Fig. 251. — Connections for multiple solenoid, self-starter. Connections for the control 
circuit are showTi in Fig. 252. When the main switch is closed, solenoid 1 is energized. Upon 
closing, solenoid 1 energizes solenoid 2 and connects the motor in series with the starting rheo- 
stat to the line. Solenoid 2 raises the rheostat arm. A, against the pull of a dash pot, and as the 
contacts are passed over, the solenoid switches 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are closed in rotation, each 
short-circuiting corresponding sections of the rheostat. When the arm reaches the end of its 
stroke, all the switches, except 7, have dropped out, and the resistances are connected in series 
with solenoids 1, 2 and 7 in the following manner: When the contact arm. A, moves off of the 
first contact, resistance is connected in series in 1. When it moves to the last contact, resistance 
is connected in series with 7, and the resistance, R', is connected in series with 7 and the resist- 
ance, r, in series with 2. The action of the solenoid 2 was explained in Fig. 242. 



160 WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 252. — Control circuits of the starter shown in Fig. 251. 



niP-ml 




SD ©) ns 



+ 



o 



t 




/\AV — ' 



i-tne 

Fig. 253. — Connections for clapper type three-switch self-starter with current limit relays. 
When the main switch is closed, the motor is connected to the line through the starting rheostat, 
and when the current decreases to a predetermined value, the current limit relay, 1, closes and 
the switch magnet, A, is energized, which closes, short-circuiting the first section of the rheostat 
and energizing current limit relay 2. Again, when the current decreases to a predetermined 
value, the current limit relay closes, energizing magnet, B, etc. When magnet B is energized, 
the magnet winding. A, is short-circuited; likewise, when C is energized, B is short-circuited. 
When the motor is running, the magnet C remains in circuit in series with the resistance, r, which 
is inserted by opening the contact, c, when the magnet closes. The contacts a and bare inter- 
locked and open when the corresponding magnets B and C are closed, thus preventing the 
energizing of magnet A when either B or C are closed. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



161 




Fig. 254. — Connections •for clapper type five-switch self-starter with current limit relays. 
The operation is similar to that of the starter shown in Fig. 255, except that the switches A and 
E remain closed while the motor is running. 



162 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 





CornpcnsoCo 



Fig. 255. Fig. 256. 

Fig. 255. — Connections for an induction motor, self-starter; oil switches 1 and 2 being 
operated by solenoids A and B. The control diagram is shown in Fig. 256. Switches G, M 
and F are normally closed. Closing the main switch, R, energizes trip magnets D, C and E, 
and the solenoid. A, which closes oil switch 1, connecting the motor to the starting taps on the 
compensator, and the compensator to the line. The closing of 1 opens G, and later, due to a 
dash pot, the magnet C opens M and closes K. Opening M de-energizes A and D, and D-trips 
1, closing G; thus bringing B into operation, which closes oil switch 2, connecting the motor 
directly across the line. 



Polivery 




Fig. 257. — Arrangement for operating an auto-starter with an automatic switch to maintain 

constant level in a water tank. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



163 




Fig. 258. — Connections for standard speed regulator. Rheostat in series with the arma- 
ture. The no-load release holds the arm in any position it may be left, by means of a dog which 
fits into the notches corresponding to points on the rheostat. This arrangement makes it 
impossible to stop anywhere, except on the center of the contact, and whenever the voltage 
drops to zero, the regulator arm is released and returned to the off position by a coil spring. 




Fig. 259. — Connections for a compound speed regulator equipped with no-load and over- 
load releases. Speeds below normal are obtained bj^ inserting resistance in the armature circuit, 
and above normal by inserting resistance in the "field circuit. The no-load release operates 
exactly as described in Fig. 258, and the overload, which is connected in series with the motor, 
operates by short-circuiting the no-load release. 



164 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



PVherr permanent resLstance ts used 
in series vvlth 5hunt fieid connect as 
per c/ottecf (.tries -, 




Fig. 260. — Connections for combination starter and speed regulator. In starting the motor, 
move the levers Ai and Ao to the right, gradually cutting out resistance in series with the 
armature, leaving the lever Ai locked by the no-load release magnet M. To increase the speed, 
move lever A2 to the left, inserting resistance in the field circuit. The field circuit enters the 
rheostat, and is joined permanently to one end of the field resister. From this point it has 
two paths: one through the field resister and the arm Ao, and the other through the switch a, 
the armature resister and the arm Ai. At the beginning, the resistance of the latter path ia 
much smaller than the former, and at the end vice versa. When the lever Ai comes into its 
final position, the switch a is opened, so that the only path for the field current is through the 
field resister, the resistance of the circuit being increased by moving the arm A2 to the left. 
This rheostat can be equipped with an overload release connected between the points shown 
at S instead of the solid line. 




Fig. 261. — Connections for a full reverse speed regulator with no-load release. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



165 



3 Pe/^/e/ 



■D 



Regulator 




Weight 



BeLLows 



U //eight 





Fig. 262. Fig. 263. 

Fig. 262. — Connections for an organ regulator and starting box, the no-load release being 
connected across the line. Arrangement is shown for a series motor. There would be no 
change with a shunt motor, other than in the starting rheostat. 

Fig. 263. — Connections for a self-starter with drum reversing switch adapted to elevator 
work. 



166 



WIRING: DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Mechanioa/ brake must be fully r£leaiec( 
off at A 




Fig. 264. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



167 



■a 
■O 




AAAA 



Fig. 265. — Connections for a compound automatic reversing printing-press controller. 
Moving the lever to the right gradually cuts out resistance in series with the armature until 
full spefed is reached, when further movement in the same direction will insert resistance iu 
series with the field circuit, increasing the speed above normal. Movement to the left of the 
dead contact will reverse the motor and allow it to run at slow speed. 



168 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 266. — Connections for Carpenter's compound press controller. When the lever is in 
the off position, the solenoid switch, b, can be energized by operating the release shown at the 
right. This solenoid switch closes the main circuit through the starting resistance, which then 
can be cut out step by step by moving the starting lever to the right for forward operation, and 
to the left for backward operation. When the solenoid switch, b, closes, a resistance is inserted 
in series with its winding, fhus cutting the current dowTi to that value which is just sufficient 
to hold it in a closed position. The series overload relay, a, is arranged to cut out the solenoid, 
b, whenever predetermined current is exceeded. If the motor is stopped, it cannot be started. 



RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



169 



c 



i: 




Fig. 267. — Connections for compound tj^pe printing press controller. The connections 
made by the starting arm are shown at the left. The solenoid switch, S, can be closed by a 
push button when the starting arm is in the off position. When it is in any other position, 
pushing the button will open it. The series overload relay, M, which is set for a predetermined 
maximum current, open-circuits the solenoid, S, when it drops out, thus making it impossible 
to start the motor again until the controller arm has been returned to the off position. 



170 



WIRING, DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




<:> ^ b* d) ^ t-> 



n. 



2 ? 



Lik( 
e tap 
trolle 


extreme 
magnet 

ontrollei 

t. 


ler. 
anc 
con 


_^ y._ 


ntrol 

resist 

the 


at th 
w-ou 
the 
al to 


O t— 


o c 


SJ-C o 


iSS.SS 






ine-toc 
nals a 
ection 


wo conta 
re for the 
ontained 
stat is ex 


o S c 


e5 !- O 


t-i e3 " O 


£SO 


verse 
tacts, 
lier. 


left, 
itrolle 
ister 
ture r 


ull re 
e con 
toget 


at the 
le coi 
it res 
arma 


Ph-S 


-kj 3 (U 


1-^73 


a « rt 


269.- 

s on 
necte 


show 
ide of 
Id cir 
hile t 


s- C 


o a>^ ^ 


• O o 






a 03 


C3 3H.-S 




RHEOSTATS AND CONTROLLERS 



171 




Fig. 270. — Connections for non-reversing machine-tool drum-type controller. 

are connected together. 



Like numbers 



172 



WIRING J)IAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



'432/ 



/ 2 3 4 




Fig. 271. — Connections for full reversing machine-tool drum-type controller. 

are connected together. 



Like numbers 



SECTION XV 
LIGHTNING APJIESTERS 



i 



LIGHTNING ARRESTERS 



175 



r\ 










nA 






coiLe,' 




S^ LIGHTNING ARRESTERS 






^ ) 


, i 


1 










/ 








J 










■=! 













'== GROUND 



Fig. 272. — Location of lightning arresters for the protection of direct-current arc hght circuits 

up to 6000 volts. 



5^ TO APPARATUS 



Jl.a. 



TO APPARATUS 




/feactof^ce 



/ /irj^:?, J /■ 



%'^ 



—=- GROUND Ccnecaco^ feeacr feeocr 

Fig. 273. Fig. 274. 

Fig. 273. — Location of lightning arresters for the protection of incandescent lighting 
circuits. 

Fig. 274.— Connections of lightning arresters in a direct-current ungrounded system, up to 
850 volts. 






r/sia 



V, fteocconco Co// 
/SiriLcA 



1= 

Ta 



1 






^VOKCancc CO/V 



o 



ft. 



'S^tninff ArroaCer 



Fig. 275. Fig. 276. 

Fig. 275. — Connections of lightning arresters in a direct-current grounded return circuit 
up to 850 volts, machines closing on negative sides. 

Fig. 276. — Connections of lightning arresters in a direct-current grounded return circuit 
up to 850 volts, machines closing on the positive sides. 



176 WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



I nsw^ 



CHOKE COIL 



ITZ 



-nsTSTT^ 



CHOKE COIL 



I — 'TRnrv 

CHOKE COIL 



f FEEDER^ 



J' 



J' 



"^F GROUND 

Fig. 277.— Location of lightning arresters for the protection of direct-current feeder circuits. 

rnOLlEY WIRE 



'L.A. 




± 



Z^ 



u.A. ;; E., — CHOI 
_J g^ 



CHOKE COIL 

TO MOTORS 



_CL 



^^ GROUND ^^ G ROUND . 

Fig. 278. — ^Location of lightning arresters for the protection of direct-current railway distri- 
bution circuits. 



X 




Single Phase. 7^° " Phase 
^ Independent. 



Two- Phase 
Connec+ed. 




Two -Phase 
Three Wire. 



Three -Phase 
Del+a 



Three -Phase V. 



Three -Phase 
Three -Phase T S+ar 

Fig. 279. — Location of spark-gap dischargers for various arrangements of transformers. 




LIGHTNING ARRESTERS 



177 



/OOOn>/S Circuit 



jjooni'c Cii-cuid 




grWr?i] Prei-ihA 



JJOOyb/i/r.C&na/ePo/e 
Ca£.Mx46990 



^SOO^b/C /77reepf?aseCin:ui't 





/OOOO I'o/tS. 



2JOO ^o/t i4.C. 

iSi'n^/e Po/e 

Cat.Ab.'4M77 



3J00^'o/tAC. 
Oc3ub/ePo/e 
Cat. /vo, 1^6 P/ J 



2jooni/t AC 
yr/p/ePo/e 



Fig. 280. . Fig. 281. 

Fig. 280. — Connections of multi-gap arresters with shunt resistance. 

Fig. 281. — Connections of multi-gap lightning arresters with shunt resistance with three- 
phase delta or star connected circuits with neutral ungrounded. Letters on the diagram denote 
the gap to which connection is made, and key being given on an enlarged V-gap at the bottom. 



178 



WIRING, DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



t^oarA 3a^ 









^T^ 


M 


^^ 


n 


Gh^ 



^ 



r-^ 



Fig. 282. Fig. 283. 

Fig. 282. — Multi-gap lightning arresters with graded shunt resistance connected for opera- 
tion on a 3300-volt ungrounded star or delta system. 

Fig. 283. — Multi-gap lightning arresters with graded shunt resistance for operation on 
star connected systems with grounded neutral. 



LIGHTNING ARRESTERS 



179 




^V#' 




\—fs^^—i 



Fig. 284. Fig. 285. 

Fig. 284. — ^Connection of low-equivalent lightning arrester to a 180,000-volt three-phase 
star connected circuit with grounded neutral. 

Fig. 285. — Connections of multi-gap lightning arresters with shunt resistance with three- 
phase delta or star connected circuits with neutral ungrounded. Letters on the diagram 
denote the gap to which connection is made, and key being given on an enlarged V-gap at the 
bottom. 



180 



WIRING, DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 
















M//77/nan7 



Fig. 286. — Connection of an aluminum lightning arrester to a grounded neutral system from 
30,000 to 100,000 volts. The horn gaps are placed horizontally, not as shown. 




¥Groiync/ 



^/(//77/hum 



Fig. 287. — Connection of alummum hghtning arresters to a delta or ungrounded system, from 
30,000 to 100,000 volts. The horn gaps are placed horizontally, not as shown. 



LIGHTNING ARRESTERS 



181 




COPPER PLATE 

WITH GROUND LEAD 

BIVETEO TO IT 



ROUND LEAD 



PERMANENTLY DAMP EARTH 



FINE CHARCOAL 



Fig. 2SS. — Standard form of ground connection for lightning arresters. 



SECTION XVI 
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 



MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 



185 






Fig. 289. Fig. 290. Fig. 291. 

Fig. 289. — Ammeter connected in series with the circuit, either direct or alternating current. 
Fig. 290. — Voltmeter connected directly across the line, either direct or alternating e.m.f. 
Fig. 291. — Connections for a wattmeter, either direct-current or alternating single-phase current. 







->AA/WV 





Fig. 292. Fig. 293. Fig. 294. 

Fig. 292. — Direct-current ammeter used with shunt. 

Fig. 293. — Direct-current voltmeter used with multiplier. The true e.m.f. is obtained 
by multiplying the reading of the voltmeter by the sum of the resistance of the multiplier and 
that of the voltmeter, divided "by the resistance of the voltmeter 

Fig. 294. — Direct-current wattmeter using multiplier with the shunt coil in shunt with 
the series coil. 



I 















-o o- 












-o o- 












wv 



Fig. 295. Fig. 296. 

Fig. 295. — Two voltmeters in series for measuring voltages beyond the range of either one 
of the instruments. E = Ei +E2. The ma.ximum voltage which can be measured with two volt- 
meters in series depends upon the ratio of the resistances. If Ri = 100,000 ohms and the range 
is 500 volts, and Ro = 170,000 ohms and the range is 600 volts. The maximum volts which they 
can measure when connected in series is: 

Sum of resistances X larger range -^ larger resistance 
100,000 + 170,000 X 600 ^ 170,000 = 950 volts 
Fig. 296. — Connections of a compensated voltmeter for reading voltage at any point on a 
direct-current line. The scale of the voltmeter is so constructed that it reads full voltage when 
the line is opened and zero when it is short-circuited. 



186 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Current Transformer, 



Compensoting Device 




Feeder 
Circuit 

r^Lentiai 
[\J\l\[\J\ Transformer 
O 



Fig. 297. — Connections for a compensated voltmeter adjusted to indicate the voltage at 
any desired point along an alternating current line. A is a series transformer, D a shunt trans- 
former, B a reactance coil and C a resistance coil. C and B are adjusted to give a resistance and 
reactance proportional to that of the line between the point where the voltmeter is connected 
and the point where it is desired to indicate the voltage. 






Fig. 298. Fig. 299. Fig. 300. 

Fig. 298. — Ammeter connected to a .series transformer. 
Fig. 299. — Voltmeter connected to a shunt transformer. 

Fig. 300. — Single-phase wattmeter connected with series and shunt instrument trans- 
formers. 




Fig. 301. — Two single-phase wattmeters connected for measuring two-phase power. 



MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 



187 





Fig. 302. Fig. 303. 

Fig. 302. — Two single-phase wattmeters connected to a two-phase circuit with instru- 
ment transformers. 

Fig. 303. — Two single-phase wattmeters connected to measure three-phase power. 




.ZIX 



-^C^ 



Fig. 304. Fig. 305. 

Fig. 304. — Two single-phase wattmeters connected to a three-phase circuit with instru- 
ment transformers. 

Fig. 305. — Two single-phase wattmeters connected to a four-wire three-phase circuit 
using series transformers. Series transformers are always used for this connection. 



y^ 



Fig. 306. — Two single-phase wattmeters connected to a four-wire three-wire circuit using 

both shunt and series transformers. 



188 WIRINQ DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



IWV i VvV\/ • '•vA/N/* 



t::: 



Fig. 307. — Two single-phase wattmeters connected to iiieasure power in a six-phase circuit. 



.zZ\. 



h 



D 



3c: 

3€ 



n 



m 



n 



[F 



Fig. 308. Fig. 309. 

Fig. 308. — Polyphase wattmeter connected to a four-wire two-phase circuit. 
Fig. 309. — Polyphase wattmeter connected to a four-wire two-phase circuit with instru- 
ment transformers. 

















































^ 


kj 































n^n 



ml, 



Fig. 310. Fig. 311. 

Fig. 310. — Polyphase wattmeter connected to measure three-phase power. 
Fig. 311. — Polyphase wattmeter connected to a three-phase circuit with instrument 
transformers. 



MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 



189 



m^ 






m 






Fig. 312. Fig. 313. 

Fig. 312. — Polyphase wattmeter connected to a four-wire three-phase system. Series 
transformers always used with this connection. 

Fig. 313.-;-Polyphase wattmeter connected to a four-wire three-phase circuit, using both 
shunt and series transformers. 





Fig. 314. Fig. 315. 

Fig. 314. — Polyphase wattmeter connected to measure power in a six-phase circuit. Three 
series transformers always necessary. 

Fig. 315. — Single-phase wattmeter connected to measure power in one leg of a delta con- 
nected load. Total power consumed equals three times the reading. 



190 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 






Fig. 316. Fig. 317. Fig. 318. 

Fig. 316. — Single-phase wattmeter connected to read the power consumed in one leg of 
a star connected load. The total power equals three times the reading. 

Fig. 317. — Connections of a power-factor meter for a jingle-phase circuit. 

Fig. 318. — Power-factor meter connected to a single-phase circuit with instrument trans- 
formers. 



Phase 
A 



Phase 
B 




Phase 
A 



Phase 
B 





Fig. 

formers. 

Fig. 

Fig. 



Fig. 319. Fig. 320. Fig. 321. 

319. — Power-factor meter connected to a two-phase circuit with instrument trans- 

320. — Power-factor meter connected to a two-phase circuit. 
321. — Power-factor meter connected to a three-phase circuit. 














z 








f+4 






1 


^ 


? 


\j 



Fig. 322. — Power-factor meter connected to 
a three-phase circuit. 



Fig. 323. — Power-factor meter connected 
to a four-wire three-phase circuit. 



MEASURING INSTR UMENTS 



191 



Line 



lAdLL 



-^ 



Load 



Fig. 324. — Connections for a three-phase watt-hour meter. 




Fig. 325. — Connections for three-phase v/att-hour meter using three-series transformers. 




Fig. 326. — Connections for three-phase watt-hour meter using series and shunt transformers. 



192 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Phase A 



Line 



Phase B 




Load 



& — = 4> 

Fig. 327. — Connections for a two-phase 
watt-hour meter. 




Fig. 328. — Connections for a two-phase 
watt-hour meter using series transformers. 




vww 

mm 




Fig. 329. — Connections for two-phase 
watt-hour meter using series and shunt trans- 
formers. 



Fig. 330. — Connections for testing a 
watt-hour meter with a precision watt- 
hour meter. 



MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 



193 





Fig. 331. Fig. 332. 

Fig. 331. — Connections for two-wire static ground detector. The principle is the same as 
that of the quadrant electrometer. As long as the e.m.f. between the ground and each line is 
the same* the hand remains in the upright position, pull on the vanes being balanced. In case 
one side becomes grounded, the balance becomes upset and the pointer takes another position, 
indicating the line on which the ground exists. 

Fig. 332. — The two-wire ground detectors connected to a three-wire sj-stem. 




Fig. 333.- 
Fig. 334. 
resistances. 



Ground Gnounc/ 

Fig. 333. Fig. 334. 

-A three- wire or three-phase ground detector connected to a three- wire system. 
-Static ground detectors connected to a three-wire line through protective 



194 WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 





Grouncf 

Fig. 335. Fig. 336. 

Fig. 335. — Three-wire or three-phase ground detector connected to a three-wire line 
through a protective resistance. 

Fig. 336. — Connections of synchronizing lamps for synchronizing light. A and B are 
the machines to be synchronized. 



rO-O-OO] 




r^Mi 




HD-O-OO-I 
Fig. 337.— Connections of synchronizing lamps for synchronizing dark. 



OO 




Fig. 338. — Connections of synchronizing lamps for synchronizing dark, shunt transformers 

for lowering the voltage. 



MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 



195 



]Sw. 



© 






o 

Synchroniz'tng 



IlSw. 



© 



VA SL 



li 



1 : : x 



Wol-taqe Synchmnizinq 



C. 



]5w. 







n 



L 

r-O-i 



a 



d. 



UM 



[CJ] [TO 

SfarHng Running 
(Synchr.) 
Fig. 339.— Connections of synchronizing lamps with plug switches, synchronizing dark. 



196 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



/?e3/s6or}ce - ffeaci.o/->co Box 



Scfnchr-on/srT^ /nef)caior- 




Buses 



Recepf-ac/e A o ['y 

/ ~J 

Starting /funn/ryo 



°/fgc e/st ac/e 



//O l^o/ts 



To corresponding phases of machines 
or buses being synchronized 



Fig. 340. — Connections for synchronism indicator and lamps for synchronizing dark. Shunt 
transformer with secondaries grounded. 



Bac^ liOei^ 



/?e3/s£once -/feacr6ar7ce Box 



Si/rTchroTSm /nd/coior- 



ffecept ac/es 




Si^nc/jrort/z/r?^ 
Susses 



ffece/siac/es 



7c> coi^/'GS/3or>c^Jr7<^ f^hcsSGS c^ 
A/ach/nes or Busses ^s/r->^ Siyr^c-^fon/zeO 



Fig. 341. — Connections for synchronism indicator and lamps for synchronizing dark. Shunt 
transformer with secondaries grounded. 



MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 



197 




/?est.sta/rce 



'/rSVr°^ L^Mom^ 



/?ecarc^a/7C6 



Stator- 
Cod 



Fig. 342. — Internal connections of synchronism indicator. Letters refer to terminals shown 

in Figs. 340 and 341. 



I 



Main Switch Hi 



To Synchronism 
/nd/cator 



Synchronizing 
Receptacle 

Potentiol 



II 



Fuse J 

-1 'T^M 



Transformer ^^3_j-4 
oynchronizing Plugs \X\. 



^ 



+ 



r 



starting Running v_^/ 

Alternator 



II 
II 



1 -^ih 



Fig. 343. — Connections of plug switches for use with synchronism indicator. Secondaries of 

shunt transformers grounded. 



198 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Main <5wit ch r^ 1 

To Synchronism I I 

Indicator ^\2\i\ 



Sync iironi zing 
Recept'ocles 



II 



Fuse 



Potent/a/ Transformer \ \ \ 

Synchronizing 
Plugs 



^ 




n 



ftll 

11 

/ 

I 

I 
\ 



I 



i3tarting Punn/ng ^ ^ 

Alternator 






tj 1 1 

/ 
( 



Fig. 344. — Connections of plug switches for use of synchronism indicator. Secondaries of 

shunt transformers not grounded. 



I 



Voltmeter \potential 
(^\r use V Plug 



^' Circuit Breaker 



/ 



f^l Ammeter 
V Ohunt 

Ma/n. Switch 



, Potent /a/ 
A- ^ecept oc/e 



/ 



^ 



I I 



N 



^ Rotary 
^Converter 



' Pqualizer 



< 

^ f Switch 
I I 
I I 

-4— i^ 



Fig. 345. — Connections of plug switches for use with voltmeter on direct-current generator or 
synchronous converter panels. Ground return system. 



MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 



199 



Voltmeter 



Potential 
Receptacle 




r-+ J3u<3 

■A— Bus 



Potential '^' 
Plug V\ 



C/rcuit Breakj^r 



Ammeter 
Ohunt 

Main C3mtcl7e3 



Compound 
Generator 



Equalizing 
Switch 



Equalizing 3u3 



Fig. 346. — Connections of plug switches for use with voltmeter on direct-current generator or 
synchronous converter panels. Metallic return system, two-wire. 



Main^witcm 6i6 

(5.Z\ / 



Potential Potential 
Receptacle Plug 




Voltmeter 



'<: I I 

J I . 

Potential p-J !! — ■ 

Tran3PormerQ\ /^Vp\ 



u^; 



A A ht^^jtl-^ 
V V V V y 



Alternator 

Fig. 347. — Connections of plug switches for reading voltage of three-phase generator. 



200 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Voltmeter 



HI I I 
j c o '*> o I 

Potent/a/ Potent/of ' I 
-Receptacle P/ug I | 

II 



Fu^e I I I I 




Potent/a/ \}\i \ 

Neutral \\ y 

Alternator 

Fig. 348. — Connections of plug switches for reading voltage of three-phase four-wire generator. 




Ma/n Switch V^^'^'t'] 

Potent/a/ Potential \\\\ 
Receptacle Plug j | I I 

III! 



\. 



Voltmet er 



Fuse 



■X- 



- 'ill 

r\h\ 



.11 

Potential ^Jj.4^^L^ 



n 



TransPormer^'. ^/v^ ^,^^ | 
Alternator 

¥m. 349. — Connections of plug switches for reading voltage of two-phase four-wire generator. 

Phases not interconnected. 



SECTION XVII 



REMOTE CONTROLLED AND AUTOMATIC 
SWITCHES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS 



AUTOMATIC SWITCHES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS 

Red Indicatir 
y(0il Switch 



203 




Red Indicating Lamp 
Closed!) 




Closing Contact 



]3d •■ — Openinfi Contact 

I Green Indicating Lamp 
i" (Oil Switch Open) 



IZSVolt- Buses 



Series Motor 
Operating Oil Switch 



Clutch Magnet Coif 



Automatic Contact Fingers 
Can^ Actuated 

OTT SWitchTnCiosedl position 
Fig. 350. — Connections for the remote electrical control of oil switches. 




Overload Coil 
Fig. 351. — Connections for automatic oil switch mounted on panel. 



204 WIRING, DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 

Source Load 

Ground 



Curren L 
Transformer 



AwLomaLic 
Oil ZwiLch 



-• •- 



-• ♦- 



Trip Coil 



Doutile F-\:>l& Relay 
Circuit. Normally Cloaecf 

Fig. 352. — Connections for remote control of an automatic oil switch. 



<Source 



Oil Switch 



Open Circuiting Switch 



Trip Coil 



Load 



T 



Current 
Tran'2>rormer 

Ground 



RQlay 



To Continuous 
Current supply 

Fig. 353. — Connections for remote control of an automatic oil switch using direct current in the 

trip coil circuit. 



AUTOMATIC SWITCHES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS 



205 




Connection 
to Relay wjieii 
Automatic 



Fig. 354. — Connections for a solenoid-operated oil switch control with signal lamps. A is 
the closing and B the opening solenoid. Auxiliary switch, S, is used automatically to cut out 
of circuit the coil last operated and insert the other so that it will respond when the control 
switch, C, is thrown over. The operation of S is accomplished by the solenoids themselves. 
Signal lamps g and r indicate open and closed circuits respectively. 




Fig. 355. — Connections for interlocking two solenoid-operated switches. Solenoids Ai 
and Aa close, and Bi and B2 open their respective oil switches. The operation of the opening 
coil A moves the auxiliary switch S to the left (a side), and the operation of the closing coil B 
moves it to the right (& side). The connections are such that both switches cannot be closed 
at the same time. When the closing coils B are operated, they automatically cut themselves 
out of the circuit by means of the auxiliary switches S. 



I 



206 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



on 

Switch 



'A.C.Buses 



D.C, 



+ 



Coil \ Switch IS Closed 
Wfc Spot 
"~* \AuxiHary 
Switch 




Fig. 356. — Controlling circuit for a solenoid-operated oil switch. 



CJosirjt 
Coil 




--Closed when Oil Switch is Open' 



Reel Lamp 



__ ' "^^^i^n Lamp ^ Travis 'ormer 





: ci-ChGreen 
1 Lamp 



Fig. 357. — Connections of an interlocking system for two solenoid-operated oil switches 
arranged to be tripped by an automatic relay. 



AUTOMATIC SWITCHES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS 



207 



■j£U^JlS9Udg 







I s 







00 ^"^ 

a 
o 



«-« 






208 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Single-Phase. 



Three - Phase 



tWh 



'Series 
Trcrnsfarme/' 



Genera for 

pcj- -SI yo' ^ \^-^ 

Three -Phase. Two- Phase. Two-Phase. Two -Phase 
(Orounei^d Neutral (Phases Infercon. (Phases 

for H 3 Switch) for K 3 Switch) Interconnected ) 

Fig. 360. — Connections for oil switches with trip coils operating on an alternating current 
circuit excited by series transformers. 



Three -Phase. 
(Grounded 

Neutra/) 
W^^OilSwitch 

Trip Coils 



i^ 



AUTOMATIC SWITCHES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS 



209 




SINGLE PHA86 .THREE Pt;tASE 






THREE PHASE 



U jj lA 



Three phase 

(GROUNDED NEUTRAO 



)\ 



R 



M 



y On oil- 



N. •= CROON 3 

CUhRENT TRANSrORMEHS 



TWO PHASE 
(PHASES INTERCONNECTED) 



Fig. 361. — Connections for oil switches with trip coils operating on a direct-current circuit, 

using circuit-closing relays. 



210 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



Senes /?es/5t ance 
LTUir-T 



L Ovy i/o/toae rr/pp/ng f 
.Co// 5iv/tci^ I 



Fig. 362. — Connection of low-voltage trip. 
Tripping switch normally open. 





5<5'/ 


-/<^s /?e5/ stance 

"S- L oi^ i^o/tage Co// 








? 


?? 


5r^';?^ ( 



Fig. 363. — Connection of low-voltage trip. 
Tripping switch normally closed. 



! S/tunt r/-/p 

■ Co// T/-/pp//7t;/ 

5iy/i-c// 



Fig. 364. — Connection of shunt trip. 
Tripping circuit dead after operation 
of the breaker. 



C/rc/j/'t Ope/^z/^q 

SiV/tc/l 

(: 



■ 5/yunt Tr/p 



rnppine) j- 
Stv/tc/i / 



Fig. 365. — Connection of shunt trip. 
Tripping circuit rendered dead by plug 
switch. 



/^s/'t/'ve 3u^ 



UrS 



y^/orm Be// 
Q 

Dn 



C/rcu/t Brea/(er 



C/rcu/'t- C/os/r/^^JL 
^uM'///orySyy/tc/^ * 



uFuse 



a 



m 



> /^es/'stance 
LotAi' Vo/to^ Co// 



Speec/ L/mrtf/^ 9 



. £(?L/o//'^e^ Bjys 



^~r* 



AAs(^ai/Ve Sus 



Fig. 366. — Connection of low-voltage trip coil to speed limiting device used on a synchronous 

converter. 



AUTOMATIC SWITCHES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS 211 



C/rcu/'t 



/VeQot./v9 Bus 




C/fCey/i O/osn/ng 



■9hur-)t Trip Co// 




To/^secf9i^' 



from Gerterator- ■ 
Fig. 367. — Connection of shunt trip coil with or without circuit-opening auxiliary switch. 



Circuif Chslni^ 
4 <S; Opening 
tQ<-/iux.Swifc/7 



\Shunf Trip 
\ Coil ^ 




Shunt Trip 
Coil ^ 



Aurf., Swifch chses one Circuif erne/ 
Opens anofher when Circuit Brecr/rer Opens 

Fig. 368. — Connections of system for interlocking two circuit-breakers by means of shunt trips 

and auxiliary switches. 

Aux. Switch Closes when 

Circuit Breaker Opens 




Overload 
Coll 



Overload^^^yfyff 
(^o'l ^ Coil 



Fig. 369. — Connections of system for interlocking two circuit-breakers by means of low-voltage 

trips and auxiliary switches. 



212 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




To Field 



To 

M otor 
Arm 



Fig. 370. — Connections of an overload and 
no-voltage release circuit-breaker. 




Fig. 371. — Connections of an auxiliary 
shunt trip for a circuit-breaker. 





^^ 



Fig. 372. — Connections of an overload and no-voltage circuit-breaker for protection of three- 
phase induction motors. 



SECTION XVIII 
RAILAVAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



i 



I 



RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



215 



Vol'ch . 

5 clw 



Series Li Controller Multiple 



Res Motor / Motor 2. 



-B— O — WV — O — VW— 



— S-HD— AW— O— ^W\^— 
m O— AW— O— A/VW*— 



•o-AwH 

_^rO-W-, 
— |-o— W^-O— ^VW\A— 

— B-o-^ww^-o-^vw— 
-M-O—^Mf—0 — 'm— 
-T^-O— MM/^-O— VWI/^— 

ui -^^=— O — ^AAA^.-0 — ^AAV— 

Circuit ope/ 
Changes to mulii/ole 
see ttCxi column 

Fig. 373. — Connections of a two-motor equipment corresponding to the various controller 
notches when using a type L controller. This type of controller is used with the series-parallel 
system where the transition from series to parallel connections is made by open-circuiting both 
motors. 



216 



WIRING, DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL AFPARATUS 



12 



CONTROLLERS 
K,„ANDK„ 



RES. MOTOR 1. MOTOR 2. 

— [QIM>-A/WV^>-A/VW 
-^^3ll}-o-AMV^>-AWV- 
-J^^2l}-o^AMrO-AAAAr- 



-CS^o-A/V\^^(>-W/V- 
-MimJo^VWv-a-AVW- 

-^%M>-WyVpO-A/\A/V^ 



Fig. 374. — Connections of a two-motor equipment correspondmg to the various controller 
notches when using a tj^pe K controller. This type of controller is used with the series-parallel 
system where the transition from series to parallel connection is made without open-circuiting 
the motors. 



RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



217 



cs 



CONTROLLER 



RES. MOTORS 1 & 3 MOTORS 2 & 4 

r^ rO^W^ r<MM/W-[ 
f—TL |-CMWWr-[ r-OAM/V^ 

HL^ rO-VMA^I rO-AAA/W-n | 

"^^ P-O-AAAA^-J [ Lo-A/W\^-'"^" 

^"^iii yLo-AAAAA^[ k>-AAAA/^ 

nzzn rO-^AAA/W-i| K>^AAAA^ [ 
^"^^ K>^MA/^ R>^AAAAr^^ 



Fig. 375. — Connections of a four-motor equipment corresponding to the various controller 
notches when type K controller is used. For explanation of type K see Fig. 374. 



218 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



W '<: r^ 
it ^ *<s 




RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



219 



^ 



I faseand Sw/tc^ 



-G 



l/gf7tr?/ng/lrre6ter 



.^^ 



^ 



7dl/g/7tsanc/Pa/77p\ 
^^c^//7gCo// M/ 7r/pp/ng^ <5y//tch\ 




Fig. 377. — Wiring diagram showing method of connecting unit switches or contactors in a 

main circuit of an old equipment. 



220 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



221 







n I ^ ?nl ^ ^ |ih In 



rra 






ywv^ 



Fig. 397. — Connections of a Sprague-General Electric automatic controller for one motor. 



;.;^£rGHAn ^ 



L-eHAH 



7T 



J- 



"^ 



-5 



/f'/-(2' 



2^ 



OJ^ 



/^-/^ 



-OP- 



/Pvi? 



■OP- 



^ 



r <^ 



/^-// 



-(iH/\nc5 

^ t ^-^y Jlr 



< 






-Jlr 



0" 



/f'-^^ 





(Par 


di^C^riS 










/ 


/ 


2 


.? 


^.6 


^ 


7 


a 


>9 


/^ 


// 


(Sif/tc///r>p 


















• 






^cce/^ra6/r>g I 


■2 
■3 




\ 


- 




• 


- 


- 




• 
• 


• 
• 


- 


CJi'rv^iy 1 


< 






• 




# 









• 


• 


• 


L 


S 






• 




• 


• 






• 


• 


• 




^r^^obe 














• 




• 








6 


• 






• 


• 








• 






_____ 


• 
• 


- 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 








• 




• 


[• 


1* 


u 


kj 


[• 


• 


1*J 



PLATE 1 
MOTOR CIBCUITS. BRIDGE CONTROL 

Fig. 380. — Motor circuits showing the method of bridging when passing from series to parallel 
connections with the Sprague multiple-unit control. 



222 WIRINQ DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



^ • • 


V", i >• 


^, ..S 


-UNt>>» 


ft* - -••• 


'2'n „ •_ 


t;M- ft » 


^;j"_»:::»» 




V ••>•»• »• 




' n ' '^ 




RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



223 



^ 



A «»^ s*o .^^ 



^ s I II u II a I 



C_| 







w 



o 



3 
02 



224 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




F'Fbn^artf _ Contactors closed en each stejtj R' Reverse 



Bu5line 
coupler 

CH 



Coupler 
sooHet 




Fia, 383. — A wiring diagram of Sprague-General Electric i 



Motor circuit 



Connectie/iBoxNol. 
r— 






Control cLrcvlt 




5.-J^^l^~fegglr^ 




Si-s A^ 




cw 



"iJUTWpjimnrnnrTmrTTi . 
j | lo p ^ {j pi i j HI 

: T n n fl n fl f l[M 



r3ramiE3J5T'.!fr?Tra!EQ35RWfi 



^^ 



Connection box No 2 
Connection board 

CSffo O O O O O I 



5m/ 



(^pressor 




rO 



rO 



pie-unit semi-automatic control for use on locomotives. 



(To face page 224.] 



I 



1 



RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



225 




^s^Pbs/Hon 



•— — I 3 



'-^ Ground 



Fig. 385. — Diagram showing methods of operation of preventive coils. These prevent 
sparking and short-circuit currents when the voltage is varied by connecting to different taps 
for the auto transformer or compensator. 





Contacts c/osect 






/ 


2 


3 


4 


5 


e 


7 


9 


9 


<o 


/ 


• 


• 










• 


• 


• 


• 


2 




• 


• 








5 


• 


• 


• 


-3 






• 


• 






• 


• 


• 


• 


'f 








• 


• 




• 


• 


• 


• 


5 










• 


• 


1 






Fig. 



/fe/ofe 



^rmafur'as. 

^ufra//z/r>gr 
•/r>cfir>giS 

386. — Diagram of connections for Westinghouse a.c. series motor tap control. 



226 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



7 TPv/ 



Conto/c^ c/osed 



-oo ' 



^^^•^#1443^ 


7-.- --' 


__ •«tf 


3» • • 


• ••« 


,■»! • • • 


•••• 


■4 •• • • 


• • •• 


A • • • • 


• ••• 


& ••• 


•_ •••• 


Z •• 


•• ••ss 


^---111 


••iss«i 




'Ret/er^er 



/y'&/o(s 



•^ /'irynorfur&s 



/ 



pory>/o0rrsort'r?gr 



Fig. 387. — Connection diagram for Westinghouse multiple-unit control of a.c. series motors. 
Coniacts c/asec/ A.07rvf/ey /^-._ ,. 



* 


^MIvfrlc^SMia^^^ 


v 


z»-__ ::::••" 




£•_ •-- _•• 


^H, 


%•_ •• ••_ 


2 •-•••- --•* 


2«i»»» •• 


^ f 


/ -• •--•• • 


^(-;° 


' • • •• « 


5 Vi 


2: : : 1 _ _ : s : s • : • 


.^j'^C 


s. • • »• s 




^ •_ ::•••:• 


,^ o 


s • •• • • 



Offu/in/ngf notches 



fmergr&ncy Sw/fch 

1 




oHAAjAAAAA/lVu 

/Resistance Gr/als 



L/^tyf/r>g^ 



* /— OO- 



lit r*« 




Fig. 388. — Connection diagram of four-motor equipment. A.c. series motors being used both 

on direct and alternating current. 



RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



227 

















vSS^"^ f) I 

:^ wwwwwwwwww — b 




w 



o 



3 



o 



228 



WIRING, DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



229 




230 



WIRING .'DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




mm 



Ko<o 



03 









RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



231 




Jinpuoj^ !/ 



m 



e 






v.tjy 



k 



H 



J^^^l 








e-^V^ 




ui-.j"''^! 




1^ l^r« (j_ tJ 




C;% 








<■ ^"5 


a; 


^ 






c ."^ 


o 




k< 


1^^ 




,<5 5 <X 




'o OCj 


o 




73 




c 




c3 



«1 



I I 



"4 M (VI 5} 
1$ 



'tl S 



-^1$ 






O 



P^ 



232 



WIRING-DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




fe 



RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



233 



.<:''v# 



^^ 



.^. 



'<h 



k 



Oi 



Ph 



,/ 



'7 



234 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 




Fig. 398. — Location of heaters and cable box under longitudinal seats. 



RAILWAY CONTROLLERS AND EQUIPMENT 



235 




Fig. 399. — Method of installing rheostats under car floor. 



236 



WIRIXa DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



ARMATURES 



D 

BRAKE 
SHOES 

D 



RESISTANCE 



F 



CONNECTIONS FOR ELECTRIC BRAKE 
Bis AND Bjj CONTROLLERS 



ARMATURES 



o 

D 
D 
D 



RESISTANCE 



CONNECTIONS FOR ELECTRIC BRAKES 
Bb and Bji CONTROLLERS 



Fig. 400. — Connections for electric brakes used with type B controDers. 



SECTION XIX 
RAILWAY SIGNALS 



RAILWAY SIGNALS 



239 




lamps''^'"''' ^'''^ ^arr^ps 
and res a?7d res. 



Fig. 401. — Connections for a manually operated block signal. When entering the block, 
the conductor throws the switch, lighting lamps at both ends of the block; and when leaving, 
he extinguishes them. The diagram shows the equipment for one block. Where two blocks 
meet there would, of course, be two lamps; one for each block. 




Fig. 402. 




Transmmcorr hne 



Fig. 403. — Signal system for double-track electric road. 25-cycle e.m.f. is impressed upon 
the transmission system which extends along the track. The track sections are connected to 
the line through transformers. In order not to interfere with the use of the track as return 
circuit for the direct current, the sections are insulated from each other and then connected 
cogether through inductive bonds. The signals are operated by two-phase relays, one phase 
being connected directly to the transmission line and one to the rails. The high inductance of 
the rail circuit produces sufficient phase displacement to establish a revolving field. 



240 



WIRING DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



^^ 



S 



Transmisiior? /ins 




Fig. 404. — Signal system of the type shown in Fig. 403. Connections adapted to a long block 

system. 




/ro//ej/ 



A 



OTTTpS 



T^ai 



/ 




Fig. 405. — Automatic signal system for electric railroads. The relays are operated by 
energy from the trolley circuit, when the collector bridges, between the trolley wire and contact 
placed near it. Lamps are placed along the road, and the motorman can tell by them whether 
another car enters the block, or not, while he is there. 



t roller 



opera fi77g to ire 



U U ^3^^s?7 lamp ^reerj ia7npS\ n n 



^, Cired /amp 



red lampbT^ 



-- = rail 

Fig. 406. — Automatic signal system for electric railroad. The relays are operated by 
energy from the trolley circuit through pendant switches operated by the trolley wheel. The 
red light indicates a car approaching, and the green light indicates a car going in the same 
direction, and no light indicates clear block. 



RAILWAY SIGNALS 



241 




^g^ree?? /a???ps 



red 




Fig. 407. — Car-counting signal system. A trolley operated switch excites a relay which 
pulls the switch around one notch. When entering, the car causes the switch to move one 
notch in one direction, and in leaving, it moves the switch one notch in the opposite direction so 
hat the signals indicate the number of cars in the block at any instant. 




Fig. 408. — Connections for an electrically operated track switch. The magnets are ener- 
gized by inserting them between the trolley wire and the trolley wheel. By passing the insu- 
lated section of the trolley with the power on or off, the track magnet can be energized or left 
dead, respectively. 



SECTION XX 
MISCELLANEOUS INTERIOR WIRING 



MISCELLANEOUS INTERIOR WIRING 



245 



elevator j-. ^fa?7 motor switch 



2 wires 
¥00000 cir- ?77iZs 





□ ca6i?7et 



2ioire5A/o8 



3 wires 
¥00000 cir. 77?ils 



fa 77 77?otor 
switchboarct 

Fig. 409. — Feeder system for an office building. 



246 



WIRING: DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



base?7ier)t 



baiement 



sujitohhoard\ 



Fig. 410. — System of individual 
feeders for an office building. 



Fig. 411. — Feeder system combining 
methods shown in Figs. 409 and 410. 




Fig. 412. — Service distribution from two-wire circuit. 



MISCELLANEOUS IXTERIOR WIRING 

(§r^ Con fro/ SMifc/) 



247 



Supply 



Ho//arcuif' 



FT^ 



■6T 



°— B. 



L-B— ^ .?— S-J 













6 « 


^nnr 




Ih 


6 6 i 








V 




phase 




(1 




^x f 





Fig. 413. Fig. 414. 

Fig. 41.3. — -Method of distribution from three-wire circuit with automatic solenoid main 
switch controlled from a distance by a push switch. 

Fig. 414. — Service distribution from two-phase circuit for lighting. 



VFeedertor Motor 
J Mounted on Floo r 



_a 



3 



_lI 



a 



feeder for Motor on - 
Ceiling or Side Wall 



^^3 



XT , t 



Fig. 415. — Motor wiring. 




Drip Pan 



era 

Fig. 416. — Motor wiring. 



y fi 



-^ 




^ 



Fig. 417. — Motor wiring. 



248 



WIRING.' DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



hra:r?c?? cir-cui^ 

-Ol/^O-' 



■7' t <L^ MP? 

I ■I' ■r' i<sj/. 



.1: £ 



'fswitc ?? 



■777aZ?7S 

Fig. 418. — Various methods of lamp 
control. 




■ 3-wai/ S7?ap swiic^es ^S^gJ 

Fig. 419. — Lamp circuit control from 
two points. 



4 




■S77ap 3ioi^c/> snap •switch snap switch 



SB 






siuitc/f 



qId 



snap 



ic/ajy 






Fig. 421. 



QB 



^ 



U 



Fig. 420. 

Fig. 420. — Lamps controlled from three or more points. 

Fig. 421.—Several groups of lamps controlled in individual groups and as a whole. This, 
type ot circuit is known as the burglar circuit, being possible to light and extinguish all lamps in 
tne nouse with one switch, providing the group switches stand in the off position. 



MISCELLANEOUS INTERIOR WIRING 



249 




Fig. 422. — Standard methods of joining electrical conductors. 



250 WIELVQ: DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 



irf^ulaio? 



i775ic2aior\ 

insulator- 
6oJci??^- 




pore e iazn/fi 



Fig. 423. — Method of running 
wiring on side walls. 



^ 




out/en Yiexidie ^uST^ ^^I^ 

Fig. 42-1. — Concealed knob and tube work. 



kwwwwwwwwwwww^ 



porcelain 
tube 



pipe •— 

Fig. 425. — Wire passing over pipe. 



./ . porcelain 
i/j^tube 




pipe 



Fig. 426. — Wire passing through walls. 



siu oialinp 

^^ ir?5ulator^V 




Fig. 427. — Concealed wiring at an outlet. Fig. 428. — Kicking box for moulding work. 




lc£z?7_g' 



''loor 



MISCELLANEOUS INTERIOR WIRING 



251 



pariiiior) 



conoluiisj 



1///////////////////// /. 

I 




-_i\ pull 



^conduits 



% 



i 




Fig. 429. — Applications of pull boxes. 



irass floor plcttep 



C077ciuit\ 



box 



.plaslef 
or, csTnent 



co7?crete/'^oo?'' 

Fig. 430.— Floor outlet. 



i 




n 



Fig. 431. — Method of supporting 
cables in long vertical runs. 



HI 



Fig. 432. — Bell wiring for single push, single bell 
with two pushes, and two bells with one push. 



Fig. 433. — Return-call bell wiring 
system. 



:' Vn^^^?~^' 



15 



1_ master- 
pus?} duiton 



Fig. 434. — Bells operated with a double 
push (see Fig. 432). Bells can be rung 
individually or together with a master 
push button. 




Fig. 435. — Double-contact 
push button. 



252 



WIRING ^DIAGRAMS OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS 

hell , 



ruT 



o i oio 



indicatoT" 

Fig. 436. 



IM 



[ pus?? duitorj 



I 



^ 



4 






\door 
^ope7?er 



m- 



Fig. 437. 

Fig. 436. — Wiring for bell and indicator with several pushes. 

Fig. 437. — Bell wiring for apartment houses. Bells are rung from hall downstairs; door 
opener operated by pushes in the apartments, and buzzer rung by pushes at the apartment 
doors. 



ski/lio??^ r. 




Fig. 438. — Open-circuit burglar alarm system. If the circuit is closed at any point, the burglar 

alarm is operated. 



MISCELLANEOUS INTERIOR WIRING 



253 




Fig. 439. — Closed-circuit burglar alarm sj-stem. If the circuit is open at any point, the relaj's 
close switches in the main circuit and operate the alarm bell. 



See Standard Handbook, Section 18, for further diagrams. 



D. C. Lovelaet, 
F. G. S. Oo., 

Sueanvill©, 
California.